Lesson 8
Phần B - Chú thích (Notes on Patterns)

B 1
Questions:  

Person Have Object or Not

Ba
Anh chị
Hoàng
Anh
Chị ấy

 


"
"
"
"
"
rađiô
đồng hồ
ti-vi
tiền
năm đồng
chồng
  không?
"
"
"
"
"
Answers:
Yes/ No Person Have or Not have Object
Có,
Không có,
Có,
Không có,
Có,
Không có
tôi
tôi
chúng tôi
tôi
tôi
chị ấy

không có

không có

không có
(rađiô).
(đồng hồ).
(ti-vi).
(tiền).
(năm đồng).
(chồng).

 

Từ vựng Vocabulary
đồng hồ watch, clock
tiền money
đồng Vietnamese "piastre, dollar"
chồng husband

B 2
Questions:
At place have Object or Not
Ở lớp
Ở phố
Ở tiểu bang này

"
sinh viên Việt Nam
hiệu ăn Việt
thành phố lớn
không?
"
"

 

Answers:
Affirmative:
Yes At place Have Object
Có,

 

  ở lớp

 

 

sinh viên Việt Nam.

 

Có, ở phố có hiệu ăn Việt.
Có, ớ tiểu bang này có thành phố lớn.

 

Negative:
No At place Not have Object
Không,   ở lớp   không có sinh viên Việt Nam.
Không, ở phố không có hiệu ăn Việt.
Không, ở tiểu bang này không có thành phố lớn.

B 3
Note that, in a statement, chưa comes before the verb while rồi comes at the end of the sentence.
Hear the Whole Drill
Person Have Object or Not yet
Anh
Các chị
Bà ấy
Cô ấy

"
"
tự  điển
đồng hồ
tiền
chồng
chưa?
"
"
"

 

Affirmative answer:
Already / not yet Person (not yet) have Object Already
Rồi
Chưa
(tôi)
(tôi)

chưa có
(từđiển )
(từđiển).
  rồi.

B 4
The world đaõ is often used with chưa, whether action or description is involved.
Questions:
Hear the Whole Drill
Person Already State or Not yet

Các anh
Chị
Ông Bà nội
đã
(có)
đã
đã
mệt
đói
no
già
chưa?
"
"
Person Already Action or Not yet?
Anh ấy
Chị
Ông bà nội

 

( đã)
"
"
đi làm
hiểu
ăn sáng
chưa?
"
"
Affirmative Answer:
Yes Person Already State/ Action Already
Rồi,
Rồi,

 

chúng tôi
tôi
đã
"
đói
hiểu

 

rồi.
"
Negative Answer:
No Person  Not yet State / Action
Chưa,
"
"

 

bà ấy
tôi
anh ấy
chưa
chưa
chưa
già.
hiểu.
đi (làm)
Từ vựng Vocabulary
đã Verb already Verb, past
ông bà nội paternal grandparents
đi làm to go to work

B 5 Classifiers
Many things, especially objects, are classified according to what kind or shape of thing they are. If we want to talk about how many of a particular thing there are or any other definite specification, we have to use another noun, called a classifier, which states which category the object belongs to. For example, the most general classifier in Vietnamese is the one meaning 'thing'. To say 'the table' one says cái bàn 'thing table' and to say there are two tables or four TV sets or three dictionaries, that is, when speaking of tables or TV sets or dictionnaries as discreet items, one says:
có hai cái bàn have two (thing) tables
có bốn cái ti-vi have four (thing) TVs
có ba quyển/cuốn từ điển have three volume dictionaries
Not
có hai bàn have two tables
có bốn ti-vi have four TVs
có ba từ điển 

 

have three dictionaries

 

General outline for classifier constructions when specifying definiteness:
Qualifier Classifier Item Modifier
Number
mấy
bao nhiêu
nhiều,
(một) vài
______ ______ đó/đấy
này
Adjective
possessor

B 5.1
Here are some examples of some classes of things.  Practice saying them.
Classifier Item
quyển
cuốn
quyển/cuốn
"
______

cái
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

 

từ điển
sách
sách học
vỡ
______

bút
viết
viết chì
bàn
ghế
radiô
cửa
cửa sổ
nhà
Từ vựng Vocabulary
nhiều many
(một) vài (a few), several
sách book
sách học study text
text book
vỡ notebook,
cái thing, general
classifier
bút (No.) pen
cái viết (So.) pen
bút/viết chì pencil
bàn table
ghế chair
cửa sổ window
người con trai the grown son
người con gái the grown daughter
đàn ông men
đàn bà women
người đàn ông the man
người đàn bà the woman
ba người viên three public
chức servants

B  5.2 
A classifier can occur with only a number and/ or an adjective, that is, without the other noun, if the context makes it clar what thing the classifier refers to.
Hear the Whole Drill 
Number Classifier  Adjective
một
sáu
tám
______

tám
một
sáu
bảy
mười

 

đứa
"
"
______

cái
quyển
"
"
"

lơn
nhỏ

______

lớn

nhỏ
mới

 

Từ vựng Vocabulary
một đứa lớn one big one (child)
be small
mới be new
be old (Of things)

B 6
Hear the Whole Drill
Person Have How many Classifier Item
Anh
"
______

Cô ấy
"
______

Họ
"
"
______

(Tôi)
Cô ấy
Họ


"
______


"
______


"
"
______


"
"

mấy
"
______

mấy
"
______

mấy
bao nhiêu
"
______

hai
bốn
một

đứa
"
______

quyển
cuốn
______

cái
"
"
______

đứa
quyển
cái

con?
con gái?
______

từ điển?
sách?
______

bàn?
bút?
nhà?
______

(con gái).
(từđiển).
(bàn)


B 7
Hear the Whole Drill
Person How many Years Already
Đứa con trai
Đứa lớn
Em
______

Em

 

mấy
bao nhiêu
"
______

tám

tuổi
"
"
______

tuổi

(rồi)?
"
"
______

(rồi).

Note on kin terms and personal reference

        Addressing people and referring to oneself or to others is a complicated business in Vietnamese. In general there are no pronouns such as 'you', 'she', 'he'. People refer to themselves and to others, including people they are talking to, in terms of the relationship that exists between the speaker and the hearer, the speaker and the third person referred to, or the hearer and the third person referred to.  The relationship in these lessons are primarily those between speakers and hearer, speaker and hearers usually being the students of the language.

        The basic unit in Vietnamese society is the family, and this factor plays an important role in the expression of personal relationships. Almost all terms of reference are kinship terms. In this way the language constantly reaffirms and maintains meaningful relationships. For example, a child referring to itself in speaking to its parents will use the kin term con meaning ' your child/ offspring'. An older brother referring to himself in speaking to a younger brother or sister will use anh ' older brother and address that younger sibling as em 'younger sibling'. If Mrs. A and Mrs.B, both young mothers are good friends, they will call each other chị "older sister and refer to themselves as em or tôi ' I (general)';  they will address each other's children by Cháu 'niece, nephew', and in speaking to those chldren refer to themselves as , cô or bác ' mother's sister'.  If John, from abroad, is a university student in Hanoi and goes to visit his good friend (anh) Phong, he addresses both Phong's parents in a very respectful way as bác 'older uncle' (and "Mrs. older uncle').  He will address his male teachers as thầy' teacher, master' and address his female teachers as 'respected aunt' and refer to himself as em or tôi. Teachers will address such a student as em or by his/her given name and will refer to themselves as thầy or cô if the student is younger. If the students is old than the teacher, the teacher will address the students as anh or chị and refer to himself/herself as tôi.

        Kin terms used in addressing people who are older than oneself (ông, bà, anh, chị, cô, bố, ba, me, má, thầøy, dì, chú, thím, bác, cụ, cậâu ) are often combined with ạ (with dot under ) to make a more polite form of greeting:

        ' (Chào) ông ạ is' more respecful than 'Chào ông 'and '(Chào) bác ạ' is more polite than 'Chào bác'.

        This chart gives most of the commonly used terms of address and reference.  Almost all these terms are used as both 'you' and 'I' and most of them can be used to designate 'he' or 'she'.

Kinship terms and their use

kin meaning Extended general meaning
cụ great grandfather/mother (older) male friend of father, very old gentlemen.
ông grandfather Mr., Sir
grandmother Mrs., Madam, older woman (respectful)
cha father priest( catholic, protestant)
bố, ba father older male colleague/friend (friendly, joking)
mẹ, mạ, má mother older female colleague/friend (friendly, joking)
bác uncle (father's older brother or wife of father's older brother. older man/woman;inferior man (respectful)
chú uncle (father's younger brother) male friend of father, same age man (polite)
thím wife of father's younger brother young married woman
father's sister Miss, young woman, female teacher.
cậu uncle (mother's brother), father young male friend
mother's sister older female, female friend of mother
anh older brother male friend/acquaintance; male sweetheart
chị older sister female friend/acquaintance;
em younger sibling child, young friend/student, female sweetheart
con offspring young child of friend
cháu

 

grandchild; niece, nephew

 

child of close friend/acquaintance.      

 

Here are a few non-kin terms in common use:
thầy male teacher, Buddhist monk, (sometimes father)
tôi I (formely: your servant)
mình self (more intimnate than tôi), you/we (intimate)

 

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