Lesson 8
Phan B - Chu thch (Notes on Patterns)

B 1
Questions:  

Person Have Object or Not
Co
Ba
Anh ch
Hoang
Anh
Ch ay

 

co
"
"
"
"
"
raio
ong ho
ti-vi
tien
nam ong
chong
  khong?
"
"
"
"
"
Answers:
Yes/ No Person Have or Not have Object
Co,
Khong co,
Co,
Khong co,
Co,
Khong co
toi
toi
chung toi
toi
toi
ch ay
co
khong co
co
khong co
co
khong co
(raio).
(ong ho).
(ti-vi).
(tien).
(nam ong).
(chong).

 

T vng Vocabulary
ong ho watch, clock
tien money
ong Vietnamese "piastre, dollar"
chong husband

B 2
Questions:
At place have Object or Not
lp
pho
tieu bang nay
co
"
"
sinh vien Viet Nam
hieu an Viet
thanh pho ln
khong?
"
"

 

Answers:
Affirmative:
Yes At place Have Object
Co,

 

  lp

 

co

 

sinh vien Viet Nam.

 

Co, pho co hieu an Viet.
Co, tieu bang nay co thanh pho ln.

 

Negative:
No At place Not have Object
Khong,   lp   khong co sinh vien Viet Nam.
Khong, pho khong co hieu an Viet.
Khong, tieu bang nay khong co thanh pho ln.

B 3
Note that, in a statement, cha comes before the verb while roi comes at the end of the sentence.
Hear the Whole Drill
Person Have Object or Not yet
Anh
Cac ch
Ba ay
Co ay
co
"
"
"
t  ien
ong ho
tien
chong
cha?
"
"
"

 

Affirmative answer:
Already / not yet Person (not yet) have Object Already
Roi
Cha
(toi)
(toi)
co
cha co
(t ien )
(t ien).
  roi.

B 4
The world a is often used with cha, whether action or description is involved.
Questions:
Hear the Whole Drill
Person Already State or Not yet
Co
Cac anh
Ch
Ong Ba noi
a
(co)
a
a
met
oi
no
gia
cha?
"
"
Person Already Action or Not yet?
Anh ay
Ch
Ong ba noi

 

( a)
"
"
i lam
hieu
an sang
cha?
"
"
Affirmative Answer:
Yes Person Already State/ Action Already
Roi,
Roi,

 

chung toi
toi
a
"
oi
hieu

 

roi.
"
Negative Answer:
No Person  Not yet State / Action
Cha,
"
"

 

ba ay
toi
anh ay
cha
cha
cha
gia.
hieu.
i (lam)
T vng Vocabulary
a Verb already Verb, past
ong ba noi paternal grandparents
i lam to go to work

B 5 Classifiers
Many things, especially objects, are classified according to what kind or shape of thing they are. If we want to talk about how many of a particular thing there are or any other definite specification, we have to use another noun, called a classifier, which states which category the object belongs to. For example, the most general classifier in Vietnamese is the one meaning 'thing'. To say 'the table' one says cai ban 'thing table' and to say there are two tables or four TV sets or three dictionaries, that is, when speaking of tables or TV sets or dictionnaries as discreet items, one says:
co hai cai ban have two (thing) tables
co bon cai ti-vi have four (thing) TVs
co ba quyen/cuon t ien have three volume dictionaries
Not
co hai ban have two tables
co bon ti-vi have four TVs
co ba t ien 

 

have three dictionaries

 

General outline for classifier constructions when specifying definiteness:
Qualifier Classifier Item Modifier
Number
may
bao nhieu
nhieu,
(mot) vai
______ ______ o/ay
nay
Adjective
possessor

B 5.1
Here are some examples of some classes of things.  Practice saying them.
Classifier Item
quyen
cuon
quyen/cuon
"
______

cai
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

 

t ien
sach
sach hoc
v
______

but
viet
viet ch
ban
ghe
radio
ca
ca so
nha
T vng Vocabulary
nhieu many
(mot) vai (a few), several
sach book
sach hoc study text
text book
v notebook,
cai thing, general
classifier
but (No.) pen
cai viet (So.) pen
but/viet ch pencil
ban table
ghe chair
caso window
ngi con trai the grown son
ngi con gai the grown daughter
an ong men
an ba women
ngi an ong the man
ngi an ba the woman
ba ngi vien three public
chc servants

B  5.2 
A classifier can occur with only a number and/ or an adjective, that is, without the other noun, if the context makes it clar what thing the classifier refers to.
Hear the Whole Drill 
Number Classifier  Adjective
mot
sau
tam
______

tam
mot
sau
bay
mi

 

a
"
"
______

cai
quyen
"
"
"

ln
nho
be
______

ln
be
nho
mi
cu

 

T vng Vocabulary
mot a ln one big one (child)
be be small
mi be new
cu be old (Of things)

B 6
Hear the Whole Drill
Person Have How many Classifier Item
Anh
"
______

Co ay
"
______

Ho
"
"
______

(Toi)
Co ay
Ho

co
"
______

co
"
______

co
"
"
______

co
"
"

may
"
______

may
"
______

may
bao nhieu
"
______

hai
bon
mot

a
"
______

quyen
cuon
______

cai
"
"
______

a
quyen
cai

con?
con gai?
______

t ien?
sach?
______

ban?
but?
nha?
______

(con gai).
(t ien).
(ban)


B 7
Hear the Whole Drill
Person How many Years Already
a con trai
a ln
Em
______

Em

 

may
bao nhieu
"
______

tam

tuoi
"
"
______

tuoi

(roi)?
"
"
______

(roi).

Note on kin terms and personal reference

        Addressing people and referring to oneself or to others is a complicated business in Vietnamese. In general there are no pronouns such as 'you', 'she', 'he'. People refer to themselves and to others, including people they are talking to, in terms of the relationship that exists between the speaker and the hearer, the speaker and the third person referred to, or the hearer and the third person referred to.  The relationship in these lessons are primarily those between speakers and hearer, speaker and hearers usually being the students of the language.

        The basic unit in Vietnamese society is the family, and this factor plays an important role in the expression of personal relationships. Almost all terms of reference are kinship terms. In this way the language constantly reaffirms and maintains meaningful relationships. For example, a child referring to itself in speaking to its parents will use the kin term con meaning ' your child/ offspring'. An older brother referring to himself in speaking to a younger brother or sister will use anh ' older brother and address that younger sibling as em 'younger sibling'. If Mrs. A and Mrs.B, both young mothers are good friends, they will call each other ch "older sister and refer to themselves as em or toi ' I (general)';  they will address each other's children by Chau 'niece, nephew', and in speaking to those chldren refer to themselves as d , co or bac ' mother's sister'.  If John, from abroad, is a university student in Hanoi and goes to visit his good friend (anh) Phong, he addresses both Phong's parents in a very respectful way as bac 'older uncle' (and "Mrs. older uncle').  He will address his male teachers as thay' teacher, master' and address his female teachers as co 'respected aunt' and refer to himself as em or toi. Teachers will address such a student as em or by his/her given name and will refer to themselves as thay or co if the student is younger. If the students is old than the teacher, the teacher will address the students as anh or ch and refer to himself/herself as toi.

        Kin terms used in addressing people who are older than oneself (ong, ba, anh, ch, co, bo, ba, me, ma, thay, d, chu, thm, bac, cu, cau ) are often combined with a (with dot under ) to make a more polite form of greeting:

        ' (Chao) ong a is' more respecful than 'Chao ong 'and '(Chao) bac a' is more polite than 'Chao bac'.

        This chart gives most of the commonly used terms of address and reference.  Almost all these terms are used as both 'you' and 'I' and most of them can be used to designate 'he' or 'she'.

Kinship terms and their use

kin meaning Extended general meaning
cu great grandfather/mother (older) male friend of father, very old gentlemen.
ong grandfather Mr., Sir
ba grandmother Mrs., Madam, older woman (respectful)
cha father priest( catholic, protestant)
bo, ba father older male colleague/friend (friendly, joking)
me, ma, ma mother older female colleague/friend (friendly, joking)
bac uncle (father's older brother or wife of father's older brother. older man/woman;inferior man (respectful)
chu uncle (father's younger brother) male friend of father, same age man (polite)
thm wife of father's younger brother young married woman
co father's sister Miss, young woman, female teacher.
cau uncle (mother's brother), father young male friend
d mother's sister older female, female friend of mother
anh older brother male friend/acquaintance; male sweetheart
ch older sister female friend/acquaintance;
em younger sibling child, young friend/student, female sweetheart
con offspring young child of friend
chau

 

grandchild; niece, nephew

 

child of close friend/acquaintance.      

 

Here are a few non-kin terms in common use:
thay male teacher, Buddhist monk, (sometimes father)
toi I (formely: your servant)
mnh self (more intimnate than toi), you/we (intimate)

 

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