Mindanao: Mga Tao at Kultura

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wpe1E1.jpg (6566 bytes)Ang Mindanao ay ang pangalwang pinakamalaking isla sa bansang Pilipinas (base sa laki ng lupain). Ito ay matagpuanwpe5.jpg (9472 bytes) sa katimogang bahagi ng kapuluan. May limang malalaking peninsula at limang malalaking mountain ranges na ang ilan ay dating mga bulkan. Maraming mineral na kayamanan ang matatagpuan dito . Kasama na ng iron, nickle, cooper, silver, gold, coal at limestone. Ang Mindanao din ay isa sa pangunahing pinagmumulan ng iba't ibang produktong agrikulutra ng Pilipinas tulad ng pina, mais, kape, kopra, kokoa and abaka. Ang iba't ibang dagat, ilog at bukal na nakapaligid sa isla ng Mindanao ay mayaman din sa iba't ibang klase ng isda, korals at kung anu-anong pagkaing dagat.

Kapitbahay ng Mindanao ang mga bansa ng Malaysia at Indonesia. Dahil sa malapit na distansiya sa pagitan ng Mindanao sa dalawang bansang ito, naging madali para sa maagang migrasyon ng mga tao sa pagitan ng mga bansang ito. map_mindanao.gif (16177 bytes)






Text Source: Filway's Philippine Almanac
Images Source: Traveler's Companion: Philippines

Mga Ethno-Linguisitikong Grupo sa Mindanao

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Mula sa Traveler's Companion: Philippines


Limang Pangunhing Grupo sa Mindano
(Muslim or Moros)

  1. Tausug
  2. Maranao
  3. Maguindanao
  4. Samal
  5. Badjao

Iba Pang Mga Grupo na Nakatira sa Mindanao:

  1. Yakan
  2. Tiruray
  3. T'Boli
  4. Bagobo
  5. Subanon
  6. Bukidnon
  7. Manobo


Tausug (people of the current) ang kauna-unahang tribo sa kapuluan na naging Muslim. Ayon sa kasaysayan, sila ng ang namuno sa matandang Sultanate ng Jolo, at kinukonsidera nila ang kanilang sarili na mas "superior" kompara sa ibang Muslim sa Pilipinas. Kadalasan sila ay namumuhay sa isang "maskuladong" buhay na kung saan ang pakikipag-away o pagiging biyolente ay isang expresyon ng kanilang pang-araraw na kabuhayan. Sila ay mga mangangalak, mangingisda at manlilikha ng magagandang telang Muslim  at  produktong gawa sa metal.    

Kasabihan ng mga Tausug - Para sa mga Tausug, ang karamihan ng  kasabihan ay masaalla, nagmula sa mga Arabo. Ang ibang naman ay pittuwa, o payo sa buhay. Ang kasabihan ay parte ng daman o symbolic speech, katulad ng mga buktong and dialogo sa panliligaw.

Halimbawa ng mga kasabihang Tausug:

Tausug: In lasa iban uba di hikatapuk.
Tagalog:  Ang pag-ibig at ubo ay hindi maitatago.
English: Love and a cough cannot be hidden.

Tausug: In ulang natutuy mada sin sug.
Tagalog: Ang natutulog na alimango ay matatangay ng agaos.
English: A sleeping crab will be carried by the current.

Tausug: Wayruun asu bang way kayu.
Tagalog: Kung walang usok, wala ring apoy.
English: There is no smoke where there is no fire.

Tausug: Atay nagduruwaruwa wayruun kasungan niya.
Tagalog: Kung ang isa ay hindi makapag disisyon, siya ay walang kinabukasan.
English: One who cannot decide will have no future.

Tausug: Ayaw mangaku daug salugay buhi.
Tagalog: (1) Huwag aaminin ang pagkatalo haggang ikaw ay nabubuhay.  or   (2) Hanggang maybuhay, may pag asa.
English: Never admit defeat as long as you live.

Mula sa sa librong Insight Guides: Philippines and Filway's Philippine Almanac Centennial Edition

balik sa simula


Ang mga Maranao (people of the lake), ay nakatira sa northern edge ng Lake Lanao. Sila ang huling grupo sa Mindanao na naging Muslim.

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Maranao Art

Okir o okkil ay tumutukoy sa folk motifs, kadalasang pormang halaman at geometric forms, na prominente sa sining at kultural ng mga Maranao.

Ang pinakamatangdang The oldest proof of okir's flowering is the torogan, the ancestral  home of the highest titleholder in a Maranao village. The torongan is a symbol of rank abd prestige and is reserved for important celebrations and political events. It stands out architecturally in the community because if its panolong - a carved beam that protrudes in the front of the house and is adorned with okir motif.

Aside from plan and vegetable forms, the panalong has come to be dominated by the nafa or sepent motif. The malong, woven Maranao cloth, also bears various okir designs.In fact, the geometric and plant designs on the vertical strips of the malong indicate the wearer's village of origin. Brass and metal works, from the fuctional betel-nut boxes to musical instruments, always carry these designs as well. A more distinctive variation is the sarimanok, a chickenlike figure that carries a fish in its beak.

Insight Guides: Philippines and 
Filway's Philippine Almanac Centennial Edition


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Images from Traveler's Companion: Philippines

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Maguindanao are the "people of the flood plain," inhibiting an unappealing area of Cotabato Province, where land is periodically flooded by overflowing rivers. They are the largest grounp of Muslim. They are a hardy clan, surviving on agriculture, fishing and weaving fine mats and baskets.

Source: Insight Guides: Philippines

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The Samal are the poorest and least independent of the major Muslim groups. They serve as the "loyal commoners" in the hierarchy of Muslim minorities. Their lives are literally over the sea, where the villages stand on stilts above the coastal waters.

Source: Insight Guides: Philippines

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Image from Traveler's Companion: Philippines

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Badjao are the "sea gypsies," the true wanderers of the Sulu seas. They are born on the water, live upon their tiny crafts for a lifetime - turning tawny and blode in the sun and salt - and set foot on the land only to die. The Badjao are a superficially Islam tribe numbering some 20,000.

Source: Insight Guides: Philippines

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Yakan is another unique cultural group of Sulu living on Basilan Island south of Zamboanga. They are gentle people of partial Polynesian origin, with mixed Muslim and animalist beliefs. They are the most superb textile weavers of the southern archipelago. On backstrap looms they turn fine cotton and silks into remarkable geometric work of art.

Source: Insight Guides: Philippines

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Images from Insight Guides: Philippines (1)   and Traveler's Companion: Philippines (2 and 3)

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The Tiruray are of Malay stock. They are a hores-riding hill people occupying the mountains of southwest Mindanao.

Source: Insight Guides: Philippines

Images from http://isis.csuhayward.edu/cesmith/virtmus/Philippines/Crafts/Tiruray_basketry.htm

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T'Boli tribe of Lake Sebu in Cotabato have a wealth of crafts, elaborate ethnic costumes, and vivaciousdances and music. They are also admired for their handsome brasswork, which finds its way into figure statuary, heavy belts, chains and noisy anklets by much-beaded and broidery-bedecked tribal women.

Source: Insight Guides: Philippines

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Images from Traveler's Companion: Philippines


T'Boli Orthodontics

For T'Boli, pearly white teeth make humans no better than animals. To enhance their appearance. T'Boli women grind and blacken their teeth. Men do the same to gain power over animals. This practice is called tamblang. it consist of two steps. First, the nihik, when the theeth are filed into regular shapes. Then, the silob or olit, when the teeth are blackened with the sap of a tree. Sometimes, women cover their teeth with gold as a sign of affluence. Only datus and their kin can have gold teeth. T'Bolis claim this custom comes from the Muslims.

Source: Filway's Philippine Almanac Centennial Edition

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The heavily ornamented Bagobo live along the desolate eastern coast of the Gulf of Davao. In imitating the metal art works of the Moros (Muslim Warriors), the tribe has produced an ornate tradition in weaponry, and inlaid, bell-jangled metal boxes. The Bagobo also weave abaca cloths of ruddy earth tones, and weave baskets.

Source: Insight Guides: Philppines

Image from

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The Subanon of western Lanao originated one of the country's highest tradition of pottery. The 50,000 Bukidnon of east Lanao are a tribe of fiercely independent highland dwellers.

Source: Insight Guides: Philippines

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Image from http://www.bethany.com/profiles/p_code4/883.html

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The 50,000 Bukidnon of East Lanao are a tribe of fiercely independent gighland dwellers.

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Source image and text: Insight Guides: Philippines

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"Manobo" is the hispanicized form of "Manuvu," which, of course, means "people." The Manobo appear to be a remnant of the very first Austronesian invasion from Taiwan, predating peoples like the Ifugao of Luzon. The general orientation is now predominantly upland, as they were chased from the valleys by invading Visayans and Spaniards. But the Manobo have an adaptation to virtually every ecological niche, from rugged highland to coast, and are found from Sarangani Island to Agusan del Sur, the Davao provinces, Bukidnon, and North and South Cotabato. The distinctive ethnic costumes have mostly given way to commercial clothing, with ethnic materials being sold commercially as antiques.

Source: http://isis.csuhayward.edu/cesmith/virtmus/Philippines/Peoples/Manobo.htm

Manobo mother and child     Manobo warrior
Images  from

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