Articles and Books on Translation

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Internet and Cultural Concepts from a Translation Perspective Source
The cultural implications for translation may take several forms, ranging from lexical content and syntax to ideologies and ways of life in a given culture. The translator also has to decide on the importance given to certain cultural features and to what extent it is necessary or desirable to translate them into the target language (TL) . The aims of the source text (ST), as well as the intended readership for both the ST and the target text (TT), will also have implications for the translation.

Language Ambiguity
Despite the fact that ambiguity in language is an essential part of language, it is often an obstacle to be ignored or a problem to be solved for people to understand each other. The author examines this fact and attempts to show that even when perceived as a problem, ambiguity provides value. In any case, language ambiguity can be understood as an illustration of the complexity of language itself.

Limitations of Computers as Translation Tools
Explaining doubts and limitations of computers as translation tools forthrightly can only help all concerned by making clear what is likely—and what is less likely—to work for each individual user. It can also clarify what the underlying principles and problems in this field have been and to some extent remain.

Style and Stylistic Accommodation in Translation
Accommodation in translation emerges in perspectives such as cultural accommodation, collocation accommodation, ideological accommodation and aesthetic accommodation.  This article focuses specifically on stylistic accommodation in translation, proposing that accommodation should be oriented to style, which includes writer’s style, genre style, and historical style. (See also )

Testing and Evaluation in the Translation Classroom
This paper presents the basic information professional translators need to know before they enter the classroom, and outlines possible testing strategies they might use to make their teaching experience enriching and valuable for themselves as well as their students.

The History of Translation
This review of Translators through History, edited and directed by Jean Delisle and Judith Woodsworth, remarks that the book appears under the very highest auspices, being co-published by John Benjamins and Unesco. The combined effort of fifty scholars from twenty different nations, this volume was five years in the making and was published simultaneously in French and English with assistance from several Canadian sponsors and the F.I.T.

The Interpretive Model and Machine Translation
The aim of this article is to put forward an epistemological analytical grid of the field in question i.e., the works related to the analytical study of translation and its natural processing as a prelude to machine translation or computer-assisted translation.

The Invisible in Translation
It is conventionally believed that familiarity with the source and target languages, as well as the subject matter on the part of the translator, is enough for a good translation. However, due to the findings in the field of text analysis, the role of text structure in translation now seems crucial. Therefore, the present paper sets out with an introduction on different types of translation, followed by some historical reviews on text analysis, and then describes different approaches to text analysis.

The Moving Text
This is a review of Pym 2001. The main point Pym makes about getting from SL to TL is that a team of experts needs to apply an intricate set of steps in order to achieve texts that will meet all the requirements of "cross-cultural text adaptation" (Pym 2001: 1), that is, 'localization'. The steps and components involved are 'distribution' (the concern where the text goes), the forming of 'locales' (the particular country/region and language), 'internationalization' (generalization of products), 'translation' (retrieving from 'equivalence'), quantitative changes, the calculation of transaction costs (the effort put into communication), 'segmentation' (shared professionalization) and 'humanization' (consideration of the future reader).

To Be a Good Translator
This brief conference paper raises the question of what skills are needed to promote translating ability, and how can one become a good translator.

Translation Theory and Practice 
SIL (Summer Institute of Linguistics) provides the reader with a simple outline of translation theory.  There are also links to additional pages of SIL practices of working in teams with native speakers of the target audience,  producing drafts and revisions in consultation with reviewers, and preparing the final text, e.g., a Bible translation, for publication.

Types of Translations
This selection is a continuation of the piece above.  It makes note of the continuum between a literal translation at one end and an idiomatic one at the other end.

What Makes a Translator
A translator must have the following things: a native or near-native level of proficiency in both the source language (the language to be translated from) and the target language (the language to be translated to); the ability to thoroughly understand all that a text says and implies; and excellent writing and editing skills. Ideally, the translator would also have a lot of knowledge about both the source and target language cultures, as this affects word usage and meaning, as well as about the author of the original document and his style of writing.

FAQs & Fictions about Computers & Language Teaching
On the technology side, the continuing trend is for computers to get more powerful and cheaper, for software to do more—and do it better, and for our students to have access to more information. On the teaching side, the computer has largely ceased to be an add-on to the curriculum. It is no longer an extra that we include if time permits, or as a special treat for the students. For more and more of us, the computer is an essential part of our working day, and has become an integral part of how we teach. 
Article reproduced from CLEAR News (Michigan State University).

The Underestimated Importance of Vocabulary in the Foreign Language Classroom
Article reproduced from CLEAR News (Michigan State University) Fall 2004 issue.

Retrieving Collocations from Text: Xtract
This pdf article, published in 1993, deals with the challenge of translating collocations from one language to another


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Baker, M.  1992.  In Other words: A Coursebook on Translation.  London: Routledge.

Brinton, E. 1981.  Cruz, E., Ortiz y Ortiz, R. & White, C. Translation Strategies. London: Macmillan.

Duff, A. Translation. 1989. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hatim, Basil and Ian Mason.  1990. Discourse and the Translator. Singapore: Longman.

Kiraly, D.  2000. A Social Constructivist Approach to Translator Education. Manchester and Northampton: St. Jerome Publishing.

Larson, M.L 1984. Meaning Based Translation: A Guide to Cross Language Equivalence  Lanham: University Press of America.

Lewis, Michael. 2000. Teaching Collocation. Hove: Language Teaching Publications.

Lewis, Michael. 1997. Implementing the Lexical Approach. Hove: Language Teaching Publications.

Lewis, Michael. 1993. The Lexical Approach.  Hove:  Language Teaching Publications.

Nation, I.S.P. 2001. Learning Vocabulary in Another Languages. Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press.

Nida, E.A. & Taber, C.R. 1982. The Theory and Practice of Translation.  Leiden: Brill.

Rainer, S. & Biguenet, J. (eds.) 1992. Theories of Translation: An Anthology of Essays from Dryden to Derrida.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press.