Point I : A new use for yen

Notice the examples listed below:

yen  wanní
      'this evening'
weelaa  yen
      'evening'  (lit. 'cool time')
hòk   mooŋ  yen
      'six o'clock in the evening'
      'dinner, evening meal'
            It is clear that in these words and expressions yen 'to be cool' refers to the cool time of day, namely 'evening.'  If you memorize these expressions you will have no trouble using them properly.   



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Point II :  A new use for pen


You have previously learned pen in the meaning 'to be, become.'   In the examples blow it has some new meanings which are shown in bold face letters in the translation.

khăw  hàn  nʉ́a  chín   léklék
'They cut the meat into small pieces'

(lit., 'to become small pieces').

khăw  tát  phŏm  pen  ʔaachiˆip
'He cuts hair for a living'

(lit., 'to be a living').

khăw  ráppràthaan  khày   toˆm  kàp  khànŏmpaŋ  pen   ʔaahăncháaw
เขารับประทานไข่ต้มกับขนมปัง เป็นอาหารเช้า
'He ate boiled eggs and bread for breakfast'  or   'as [his] breakfast'

(lit. 'to be [his] breakfast')



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Point III :  A new use for tɛ̀ɛ



In an earlier unit you learned this word in the meaning 'but.'  In the examples below a new meaning is shown in boldface in the translation:

khăw  cháy  tɛ̀ɛ  chɔ́ɔn   lɛ́ʔ  sɔˆɔm  thaˆwnán
'They use nothing but spoons and forks, that's all'  or  'They don't use anything but spoons and forks, that's all.'
khăw  kin  tɛ̀ɛ  ʔaahăan ʔámeríkan.
'He eats nothing but American food'  or  'He eats only American food.'
phŏm  phóp  tɛ̀ɛ  khun  sàwàt
'I met no one but sàwàt'  or  'I met only sàwàt.'



          When it is used in this way the meaning of tɛ̀ɛ is similar to that of  thaˆwnán  and thaˆwnán  is indeed frequently used in the same sentence with tɛ̀ɛ.  (see the first example above).  However, tɛ̀ɛ is a more forceful word than thaˆwnán, much as 'nothing but' in English is more forceful than 'only.'



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Point IV :  The word pheˆŋ


In word means 'just, just now,' as in the following examples:

phŏm  phə̆ŋ  maa  thʉ̆ŋ  thiˆiniˆi
'I just got here'  or   'I just now got here.'
phŏm  phə̆ŋ  lúk  khʉ̆n
'I just now got up.'
khăw  phə̆ŋ  tham  ŋaan  sét
'He just finished work.'



          In English we often use the word 'just' in place of 'just now,' as is shown above.  Therefore, you should note carefully that  phə̆ŋ   means just only in the sense of just now.  It has nothing to do with the idea expressed by  thaˆwnán 'just, only; that, that's all,' as in phŏm  tɔˆŋkaan   kaafɛ  thaˆwnán  'I want just coffee' or, as we sometimes say, 'I just want coffee.'

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Point V :  The word  rúusʉ̀k


This word means 'to feel' and is used very much the way the English word 'feel' is used, e.g.,

phŏm  rúusʉ̀k  sàbaay
'I feel well'  or  'I feel comfortable.'
phŏm  rúusʉ̀k  rɔ́ɔn
'I feel hot.'
khun  rúusʉ̀k  năw  măy
'Do you feel cold?'
khăw  rúusʉ̀k  hĭw   maˆak
'He felt very hungry.'
          In these examples it is clear that  rúusʉ̀k   means 'to feel' in the sense of 'to have a certain kind of sensation.'  In English we also use the word in expressions where it means 'to feel something' (e.g. 'the blind man felt the book'), but the Thai word does not have this additional use.


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Point VI :  The words  thɔˆɔt   and  phàt.

          Although both these words are translated into English as 'to fry; to be fried,' two different cooking styles are meant.

          The word  thɔˆɔt   means 'to fry by the piece' or 'to fry separately,' as one fries a piece of meat, fish, or eggs.

          The word   phàt, on the other hand, means 'to fry a mixture,' for example, small pieces of meat mixed with vegetables, or rice mixed with small pieces of meat, eggs, and vegetables.  The result is also called  phàt, as in  phàtnʉ́a  'meat fried with vegetables' or phàtmŭu   'pork fried with vegetables.


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Point VII :  Measures of quantity used as classifiers.

          On the following page are two sets of examples showing two distinct ways in which words like those for cup, bowl, spoon, and so on, are used:

First Set of Examples

khăw  dʉ̀ʉm  kaafɛɛ  sɔ̆ɔŋ   thuˆay.
'He drank two cups of coffee.'
khăw  sàŋ  khaˆaw  săam   caan.
'They ordered three plates of rice.'
khăw  ráppràthaan  kɛɛŋkày  sɔ̆ɔŋ  chaam.
เขารับประทานแกงไก่ สองชาม
'They ate two bowls of chicken curry.'
khăw  sày  námtaan  sɔ̆ɔŋ chɔ́ɔn.
'He put in two spoonful of sugar.'
Second Set of Examples
khăw  sàŋ  thuˆay  sìp  bay.
'He bought ten cups.'
wanníi  khonkhăaykhɔ̆ɔŋ  khăay   caan  haˆasìp   bay.
วันนี้คนขายของ ขายจาน ห้าสิบใบ
'The salesman sold fifty plates today.'
khăw  khăay  chaam  săams̀phaˆa  bay  duˆay.
เขาขายชาม สามสิบห้า ใบด้วย
'He also sold thirty-five bowls.'
khăʔaw  chɔ́ɔn sɔ̆ɔŋ  khan  maa  haˆy  raw.
'She brought us two spoons.'
          In the first set of examples above the words for cup, plate, bowl, and spoon are used as measures of quantity to tell how much of a given substance is involved.  In the second set of examples, on the other hand, these same words are used simply to refer to certain articles of use.

          You will notice that when these words are used as measure of quantity, they are classifiers (because they are preceded by number-words), and as such, they may be used with any noun which refers to a substance that can be measured by the cup, by the plate, and so on.

          In the second set of examples, however, these words are not classifiers, but nouns.  And just like all other nouns, they have their own classifiers which are used when these articles are being counted by the piece.



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Point VIII :  Some classifiers

A: bay.

          This classifier is used for practically all containers and therefore you find it used for cups, plates, and bowls, as in the following examples:


thuˆay  sìp  bay
'ten cups'
caan  bay  năy
'which plate?'
chaam  bay  diaw
'a single bowl'


This same classifier also has another important use described immediately below.


B: bay, luˆuk, and phŏn.

          All three of these classifiers may be used interchangeably for all kinds of fruits, e.g.,


soˆm  sɔɔŋ  bay
soˆm  sɔɔŋ  luˆuk
soˆm  sɔɔŋ  phŏn
'two oranges'
kluˆay  bay  năy
klŭay  luˆuk  năy
klŭay  phŏn  năy
'which banana?'



C:  chín.

          This classifier is translated 'piece' and is used for anything which may be divided into pieces, e.g.,


nʉ́a  săam  chín
'three pieces of meat'
nʉ́a  chín  léklék
'small pieces of meat'
khànŏmpaŋ  chín  diaw
'a single piece of bread'


D: chánít.

          This classifier means 'kind, sort, variety' and may be used with anything, as long as you are speaking of kinds or varieties of that thing.  Note the two sets of contrasting examples which follow:


thuˆay  sɔ̆ɔŋ  bay
'two cups'
thuˆay  sɔ̆ɔŋ  chánít
'two kinds of cups'
năŋsʉ̆y   sìi  leˆm
'four books'
năŋsʉ̆y   sìi  chánít
'four kinds of books'


          Note that when  chánít  is used, you are counting kinds or sorts of the thing referred to by the noun, whereas when its regular classifier is used, you are counting single items.

E:  khan.

          You have previously learned to use this classifier with umbrellas.   It is also used for spoons and forks, e.g.,


chɔ́ɔn  lăay  khan
'several spoons'
sɔ̆ɔm  khan  năy
'which fork?'


F. leˆm.

          This classifier, typically used for sharppointed objects, is, as would be expected, the classifier for knives, e.g.,


miˆit  leˆm  yaaw
'the long knife'



G: tua.

          Though   tua  has a wide variety of uses as a classifier, its most typical use is with animals, e.g.,


mŭu  sìp  tua

'ten hogs'

plaa tua diaw
'a single fish'



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Point IX : Some compounds

          loŋmʉ'to start in, fall to, begin,' lit. 'to lower the hand.'   Compare the English expression 'to get down to' (e.g., 'to get down to work') where the idea of getting down (one of the meanings of loŋ) is also present.

          hŭŋtoˆ'to cook (general term),'from hŭŋ 'to cook (rice)' + toˆm  'to boil.'

          kɛɛŋcʉ̀ʉ'a kind of Thai coup.'  Here cʉ̀ʉt  means the opposite of phèt 'to be hot, spicy' and     kɛɛŋcʉ̀ʉt is, therefore, a kind of curry which is not hot, i.e., does not have hot spices in it.

          kɛɛŋkày 'chicken curry,' from  kɛɛŋ 'curry' +  kày  'chicken.'  This is a kind of hot (phèt) curry.

          khɔ̆ɔŋwăan  'dessert,'lit. 'sweet stuff; sweet things.'

          nʉ́anŭu  'pork,' lit. 'hog meat.'

          phátmaŭu 'fried mixture containing pork,' lit. 'pork fried mixture.'

          phàtmŭupriˆawwăan  'sweet and sour pork,' from phàtmŭupriˆawwăan  'sweet-sour' (lit. 'sour-sweet').

          phàtnʉ́a  'fried mixture containing meat,' lit. 'meat fried mixture.'

          phrɔ́waˆa  'because,' from  phrɔ́ʔ  'because, for' +  waˆa   'to say' or 'that' (in the sense of 'he said that he was going').  The glottal stop (ʔ)   in phrɔ́ʔ  is dropped before a following consonant.



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