Point 1. Additive compounds

English ภาษาไทย
   to be big, large,
   to be beautiful   สวยงาม
   to be crooked,

Each of the examples above is composed of two parts, each of which has virtually the same meaning. Thus ja$j means 'to be big, large', toּ means 'to be big, large, mature', and ja$jtoּ means 'to be big, large, enormous'. Compounds of this type are very common in Thai and the internal order of each compound is fixed; thus you must say ja$jtoּ and not *toּja$j. Therefore although it is not difficult to figure out the meaning of a new compound of this sort, a person who is not a native speaker of the language will find it best not to try to make up any new combinations that he has never heard. English has a number of special phrases which correspond to the additive compounds of Thai and in English, too, the order of arrangement is fixed. A few English examples are: 'null and void', 'to all intents and purposes', 'wit and wisdom'.