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One large class of roots, some of which are adjectives uses -kan to make causatives. The meaning of verbs formed by adding -kan to these roots is "cause to be [root]." For example we know the root habis 'finished, used up." Habiskan means "cause to be finished", or as we would express it in English. "use something up." Similarly, we have seen kembali meaning "return." Kembalikan means "make something return", i.e., "return something."


habis "all gone" habiskan "use up, finish up"
kawin "be married" kawinkan "marry off"
kembali "return" kembalikan "return something"
kosong "empty" kosongkan "empty something out"
kurang "be less" kurangkan "make something less"
lahir "be born" lahirkan "give birth (cause to be born)"
mandi "bath" mandikan "bath someone"
naik "ride, climb" naikkan "put upward, allow to ride"
pulang "go home" pulangkan "send home (cause to go home)"
sampai "arrive" sampaikan "pass forward (cause to arrive)"
senang "be happy" senangkan "make happy"
sewa "rent" sewakan "rent out"
tinggal "stay, remain" tinggalkan "leave behind (cause to remain)"
turun "go down, get off" turunkan "lower"



1. "Dani, habiskan makanan itu!," kata ibu.
    "Dani, finish up that food!," says mother.

2. Tolong kembalikan buku saya.
    Please return my book.

3. Nanti malam kosongkan tong sampah ini.
    Tonight empty out this garbage bin.

4. Sampaikan berita ini kepada keluarga Anda.
    Pass forward these news to your family.

5. "Turunkan harga beras!," kata para mahasiswa kepada pemerintah.
    "Lower the price of the rice!," say the university students to the government.