Prof. Eric Jones

 

Crossroads Lecture

Lecture 10.21.03

Prof. Eric Jones

 

Crossroads Lecture

Lecture 10.21.03

 

 

I.                    What is Southeast Asia

A.                 Historiographically, where does it come from

II.                 [1]A trade take-off around 1400

1.                  The dramatic changes in Ming Chinese imperial policy with regard to the Nanyang trade were responsible for the most striking discontinuities in Southeast Asia’s external trade

a.                   Zheng He

2.                  MELAKA

3.                  European market also rises in late 14th century

4.                  Increasing supply to Europe, Portuguese destroy Indian Ocean spice trade in 1500, never able to supply Europe with as much as Muslim traders did

5.                  Tribute missions to China

B.                 Portuguese

1.                  Estado da India

2.                  cartazes

C.                 The Boom Years, 1570-1630

1.                  Japan trade boomed, silver

2.                  China trade, boom and prosperity

3.                  European ‘spice orgy’

a.                   ¼ of total export

4.                  The broad pattern of growth in Southeast Asia trade seems equally clear whether we look at its western or its eastern branches.  There was a sudden take-off around 1400, with intermittent growth through the remainder of the 15th century, probably strongest at its end.  A sharp downturn occurred in 1500 but was made good by 1530.  There was growth thereafter, accelerating around 1570 and reaching its peak in the period 1600-30.  The mid 17th century was a time of triumph for the VOC but one of crisis for Southeast Asia.

5.                  Imports of Silver and Gold

a.                   Peak in 1620

6.                  Cloth Imports from India

a.                   Export peaked in 1664, Southeast Asia import peaked in 1640

7.                  Cash Cropping

a.                   Southeast Asia has always been an exporter of raw materials and an importer of manufactures (until Nike)

III.               VOC

A.                 Monopoly

B.                 Joint stock company, Asia trade, 1400%-7400% gross profit on cloves

IV.              The City and Its Commerce

A.                 Until the 17th century, Asian cities were in general bigger than European ones

1.                  Colonialism deurbanized

2.                  Largest cities mid 17th century  were Thang-long, Ayutthaya, and Mataram with 150-200,000

3.                  Second tier were Aceh, Makassar, Banten, Kim-long with 100,000

4.                  5% of Southeast Asia was urban, more than Europe

B.                 Urbanism and capitalism

1.                  Similarities between Southeast Asia and other leading players in the global commercial expansion

a.                   Rapid monetization and commercialization

b.                  Large portion of population produced and marketed for the world economy and came to rely on long-distance imports for such everyday items of consumption as cloth, ceramics, utensils, coinage

c.                   Trade was a big share of GNP and made high urbanization possible, not surpassed until 20th century

d.                  Cities had institutions such as bottomry, profit-sharing, lending for interest

2.                  Where Southeast Asia lagged

a.                   Banks

b.                  Security of person and property

c.                   In Southeast Asia the city and state were virtually coterminous. The city embraced the market as well as the palace and the values of one were not the values of the other

V.                 A Religious Revolution

A.                 More than half the population of Southeast Asia adopted Islam or Christianity in the age of commerce

VI.              Problems of the Absolutist State

A.                 States rose and fell rapidly in terms of the degree of force, charisma, and wealth each ruler was able to put together.  In this context the advantages that derived from trade were critical

B.                 Crisis of the Classic States

1.                  Temple building empires were all in crisis in 13th century

a.                   Burma – power shifted to landed monasteries

b.                  Chinese going to the source of production and circumventing the states

c.                   Mongol invasions

d.                  Period of transition from 1300-1400 from Classic states to maritime states

i.                     Majapahit

C.                 The Port-States in the 15th century

1.                  The rapid growth of port-centered states around 1400 was closely bound up with the unprecedented vigor of Chinese interaction with Southeast Asia under the first Ming emperors (Ming 1368-1644)

2.                  Rewards were substantial for rulers able to exploit the Chinese connection

a.                   Ayutthaya, Melaka, Brunei, Manila were the big winners

b.                  Melakas success is dependant upon Chinese protection

3.                  Collapse of classic states and trade boom

a.                   By 1500 every natural port or navigable river in Sumatra and the Malayan peninsula had a little port-state with a raja claiming more or less equality with other port rulers and more or less symbolic supremacy over the stateless peoples up the river

D.                 State Formation in the Long 16th century

1.                  Portuguese seizure of Melaka caused trade to disperse to Patani, Johor, Pahang, Aceh, Banten

2.                  Factors encouraging their rise (and created their future problems)

a.                   Bulk of the disposable revenue for all states came from the commercial sector

i.                     Taxation, external and internal trade

ii.                   Disposable revenue = arms and military might

iii.                  For the states that successfully plugged into the growing world economy during the age of commerce, external trade was the key to wealth and power

E.                  The Military Revolution

1.                  Military technological gap quickly closed between Southeast Asia and Europe

2.                  Unprecedented military buildup

a.                   Major stockades of cannons, muskets, soldiers, mercenaries, armed galley

F.                  Diplomacy

1.                  Rulers were aware (despite grandiose Indian epic-inspired claim) that they were one among many

2.                  All rulers paid tribute to Chinese and Chinese tribute system in turn was used as model

3.                  Distinct Southeast Asia protocol – the royal letter

4.                  Principal mid 17th century trading states – Ayutthaya, Aceh, Banten, Makassar – were all in diplomatic contact with each other as well as with Golconda in India, the Spanish in Manila, and the Portuguese, English, and Dutch

5.                  Royal marriages as alliances

G.                 Squeezing the Lemon

1.                  Tension between ruler’s need to attract trade by fairness and freedom and need to extract profit from it for his own purposes

2.                  Free ports attracted much trade, strong kings squeezed the merchants and drove them away

a.                   Many cities were close to being free markets when Dutch and English first arrived

3.                  Radical increase in royal monopolies from 1620-80

a.                   Southeast Asian states had to be stronger or go under with Dutch and English pressure

i.                     Rulers squeezed the producers and dealers harder

ii.                   Europeans encouraged this to do business quickly and in large amounts

H.                 Absolutism and its Rivals

1.                  Absolutism had to deal not with feudalism or constitutionalism but with autonomous lineages, tribes, and entrepreneurs not yet incorporated into state structures

2.                  Tension between rhetoric of absolutism and reality of autonomy, diversity, and contractualism

3.                  Before the centralizing rulers in the 17th century, the conciliar principle was established and no important decision could be made without the assembly of notables

4.                  The centralizing rulers, armed with new sources of revenue, with new weaponry, and with foreign assistance and example, made drastic changes to this pattern

a.                   Cutting down indigenous elite, orangkayas

5.                  The stronger states made possible by commerce sooner or later fell prey to excesses of personal power which destroyed or alienated the important merchants.  Several kings rose to unprecedented pinnaces of personal power, but none could prevent chaos and conflict at their death

a.                   Ayutthaya favoring foreigners and keeping indigenous nobility on a tight reign

b.                  Aceh carrying out a royalist coup against the aristocracy

c.                   Siam and Aceh seizing intestate estates

d.                  Banten’s unpluralist turn

e.                   Mataram monopolizing rice and destroying the port states of the north coast

f.                    Absolutism was required if bureaucratic and legal institutions were to emerge strong enough

I.                    Absolutism

1.                  Unlike the absolutism of contemporary Europe, that of Southeast Asia was not accompanied by institutions, or even theories, which gave other elements of society a stake in the new accumulation of power.  Because kings intervened directly in the market, they did not feel the need to ally with the merchant class in order to destroy baronial power, as happened in a number of European states.  If the absolutist kings had allies, they were foreigners, excluded by definition from a role in the polity.  And although pluralism was everywhere in Southeast Asian history, it found few champions in the political literature of the region

2.                  Effects of religious revolution

a.                   Encouraged kings to ignore traditional restraints upon them

3.                  Failed to create any satisfactory model of how government could be strong but also ruled by law, centralized but also constitutional

VII.            Origins of Southeast Asian Poverty

A.                 Changes in the age of commerce

1.                  Intense interaction with the world economy in the 15th and 16th centuries and withdrawal from it in the mid 17th

B.                 Similarities with this process in Europe

1.                  Integration into world trade

2.                  Commercialization of production and consumption

3.                  Growth of cities

4.                  Specialization of economic functions

5.                  Monetization of taxation

6.                  Rapid improvements in military and transport technology

7.                  Growth of absolutist states

C.                 Differences with Europe

1.                  Absence of clear safeguards for private property inhibited the development of financial institutions and discouraged the accumulation of fixed capital

2.                  Rapid development of the market and royal authority gave rise to tension rather than alliance

3.                  No strategy for sustained economic growth

D.                 Internal inhibitions to economic growth?

1.                  Wealthy were hesitant to put their resources into fixed capital (no safeguards for it)

a.                   Accumulated followers instead

E.                  Critical military encounters with the Europeans

1.                  Portuguese actually strengthened rather than weaker Southeast Asia trading states

2.                  1629, Turning point in the struggle between rising absolutist trading states of Southeast Asia and European maritime power

a.                   Iskandar Muda Aceh (failed assault on Melaka) and Sultan Agung’s Mataram (failed assault on Batavia) suffered defeats from which they never recovered

F.                  Eclipse of Mon and Javanese shipping

1.                  Internal events

G.                 The 17th century Crisis

1.                  Trade decline

a.                   Specie

b.                  China trade

c.                   Dutch monopoly

d.                  Room for only one winner in difficult times, it was the VOC

2.                  Climate

3.                  Population

H.                 Retreat from the World Economy

1.                  More trouble than it was worth to grow export crops

2.                  Poverty forced them to shift from cash to staple crops, weave their own cloth

3.                  Many mainland states withdrew from dependence on international trade or relied on Chinese junks

 

 

 

I.                    Historians view of the European crisis[2]

A.                   General agricultural, demographic, climatic, economic, military and political crisis

1.                  Political crisis and war

2.                  Prices

a.                     Price revolution ends in 1620 and prices slump

3.                  Specie Movement

a.                     Rapid inflation of late 16th century caused by silver output in Potosi and Japan

b.                     Reduction in silver supply after 1630 explains economic contraction

4.                  Population decline

a.                     Sustained population growth since the Black Death in 14th century Eurasia

b.                     Stagnation in Europe and China beginning in 1600

5.                  Urban Stagnation

a.                     London and Paris stagnate in first half of 17th century

6.                  Climate

a.                     Global cooling until 1690

b.                     Temperature in northern hemisphere decline, rainfall, crop failures, illness, population decline, political disturbance

B.                    Explanations

1.                  Transition to capitalism

2.                  Crisis of the absolutist state

3.                  Climatic and environmental factors

II.                 Historians view of the 17th century East Asian crisis

A.                   Adshead wrote on the 1644 collapse of the Ming dynasty

1.                  Collapse accompanied by famine, war, population loss, etc.

B.                    William Atwell wrote on the Tokugawa consolidation

III.               Southeast Asian Crisis

A.                   Usually attributed to Dutch politico-military supremacy

1.                  Reads back into history a hegemony that wasn’t there

2.                  Ignores interdependence of Asian and European

3.                  Fails to explain contraction in areas that weren’t colonized, Siam and Indochina

IV.              Southeast Asian Political crisis

A.                   Reverses at the hands of the VOC

1.                  Takes Batavia in 1619, Javanese resistance in futile after 1629

2.                  Banda depopulated in 1621, Ambon and environs taken in 1641-56, holding clove and nutmeg monopoly

3.                  Makassar and Banten taken in 1667-9 and 1682 respectively

4.                  Aceh loses control of tins and pepper dependencies in 1650s

5.                  Palembang, Jambi, Banjarmasin, Ternate, Solor and Kupang forced into monopolistic arrangements by 1680

6.                  Not solely Dutch-inspired, Asian allies. ‘Long-term structural changes in the states of the region owe more to internal conflicts’, 642

B.                    Internal factors

1.                  International trade boom of the 15th and 16th centuries results in stronger, more centralized kingdoms drawing most of their revenue from trade

2.                  Revolution in weaponry and armies

3.                  Move towards central bureaucratic control in Siam, Burma, Aceh, Banten, Makassar, Mataram in roughly the first half of the 17th century

a.                     Absolute rulers in all these areas were more absolute in politics and monopolistic in commerce than their predecessors

b.                     Their power was built on commerce, but monopolistic interests by especially by Europeans forced them to preserve power at the expense of commerce

i.                     Sultan Agung of Mataram (1613-46)

(a)                       Trying to establish a united polity near Yogyakarta, decimated the pasisir (lucrative maritime North Javanese port cities), Amangkurat, Agung’s successor, tried to maintain this overextended kingdom by terror, levies, and squeezing trade wealth out of the pasisir.  Would rather destroy commerce than have it operating outside his direct control. 1651, overseas travel prohibited, closed all ports, and ordered all Javanese vessels destroyed, and all merchant class moved to other entrepots

c.                     Inability to operate the centralized systems they had inherited from more prosperous times

C.                   ‘In sum, the Southeast Asian states had been driven by the economic and military conditions of the ‘long 16th century’ to unprecedented but brittle pinnacles of absolutist power, which collapsed as the economic foundations were lost to them in the course of the 17th century.  Their crisis was both deep and long-term.  These was a revival of some states, notably Vietnam, Burma and Siam, only in the mid-19th century, but none was able to cope with the pressures of European capitalism and imperialism.’, 645-6

V.                 Prices and Specie movement

A.                   Boom and bust

1.                  From 1628-97 a real drop in silver output from New World and Japan

2.                  Southeast Asia’s market share drops

a.                     Until 1620, Indonesian pepper and Moluccan spices dominate Asia trade

b.                     1650 onward, Indian cloth and indigo

c.                     18th century, Chinese products, namely tea

3.                  Huge price drop in pepper, in half from 1650-1653

a.                     Dutch blockade cash croppers, farmers eventually give up and begin subsistence crops again

b.                     Sumatran court poem

i.                     ‘Let people nowhere in this country plant pepper, as in done in Jambi and Palembang.  Perhaps those countries grow pepper for the sake of money, in order to grow wealthy.  There is no doubt that in the end they will go to ruin.  There will be much intrigue and food will become expensive’

4.                  Spice monopoly removes Asian intermediaries and freezes prices

VI.              Population

A.                   In South Maluku, population dips in the 1630s only to reach those levels in the 1690s through warfare, disease, famine

B.                    Extreme example of Banda

1.                  Population of 15,000 in 1620 (density of 100/sq kilometer), reduced to 1,000 in 1621

VII.            Urban decline

A.                   Melaka in 1511, but Banten, Makassar, Aceh all have 100,000 in 17th century

B.                    With its small population, Southeast Asia was one of the most urbanized regions of the early modern world, by the late 19th century it was one of the least urbanized zones in the world

C.                   Cities defeated and lose their political and economic raison d’être, in many cases population is reduced to 25%

VIII.         Climate

A.                   ‘little ice age’

B.                    reduce rainfall (more of the planet’s water locked in the polar ice caps and variable weather

1.                  tree ring growth on teak trees show major dip in 1600-1679

C.                   crop failure means fewer calories, meaning reduced resistance to disease

D.                   reduced clean water supplies also contribute to disease

IX.              Conclusion

A.                   Only in the second half of the 20th century, does Southeast Asia begin to shake off the effects

B.                    The economic trigger

1.                  Downturn in international economy, especially Southeast Asian produce = fewer economic actors on the scene

2.                  VOC profits needed for overhead gleaned only through monopoly

3.                  Increased political-military contest

C.                   Absolutism

1.                  Arms and wealth from long 16th century trade boom allow more centralized and absolutist states

2.                  Loss in trade = collapse or withdrawal (i.e., Japan)

D.                   Climate

1.                  Climate was at its worst when economics was at its worst

 

 

Late 18th century

            Trade volume shifts away from fine spices to tea and textiles

        1. Southeast Asia history dominated by indigenous issues and themes
        2. Role of West primarily limited to trade
        3. Even in Philippines and other enclaves where Europeans governed directly, West lacked hold it would later have
        4. New groups of Southeast Asia leaders emerge
          1. alter power structure in virtually every society
        5. Era of warfare, dynastic upheavals, population displacements, struggles for power among bureaucrats, merchants, landowners, nobility
        6. Three new Mainland dynasties came to power
          1. Konbaung dynasty in Burma (1752-1885)
            1. War with Siam, ushered in Chakri
          2. Chakri in 1782, centered at Bangkok
            1. Still reigns, though limited by constitutional reforms of 1932
          3. Nguyen dynasty, 1802, centered at Hue
            1. Abdicated in 1945 to Ho Chi Minh

 

 

After 1800

Foundations of empire

    1. Motives of imperialism
      1. Modern imperialism
        1. Refers to domination of industrialized countries over subject lands
        2. Domination achieved through trade, investment, and business activities
      2. Two types of modern colonialism
        1. Colonies ruled and populated by migrants
        2. Colonies controlled by imperial powers without significant settlement
      3. Economic motives of imperialism
        1. European merchants and entrepreneurs made personal fortunes
        2. Overseas expansion for raw materials: rubber, tin, copper, petroleum
        3. Colonies were potential markets for industrial products
      4. Political motives
        1. Strategic purpose: harbors and supply stations for industrial nations
        2. Overseas expansion used to defuse internal tensions
      5. Cultural justifications of imperialism
        1. Christian missionaries sought converts in Africa and Asia
        2. "Civilizing mission" or "white man's burden" was a justification for expansion

    2. Tools of empire
      1. Transportation technologies supported imperialism
        1. Steam-powered gunboats reached inland waters of Africa and Asia
        2. Railroads organized local economies to serve imperial power
      2. Western military technologies increasingly powerful
        1. Firearms: from muskets to rifles to machines guns
        2. In Battle of Omdurman 1898, British troops killed eleven thousand Sudanese in five hours
      3. Communication technologies linked imperial lands with colonies
        1. Oceangoing steamships cut travel time from Britain to India from years to weeks
        2. Telegraph invented in 1830s, global reach by 1900

    3. Southeast Asia leaders unprepared for commercial and political offensive after Napoleonic Wars
        1. British intrusion, partly at Dutch expense
          1. Secure eastern flank of British India and protect routes to China
          2. Singapore, 1819
          3. War with Burma, 1824
          4. Commercial treaty with Siam, 1826
          5. Britain moved deeper into Burma and Malay Peninsula in 19th century
        2. Development of export agriculture in Philippines and Indonesia
          1. Driven by industrialization in Europe
            1. New market
          2. Sugar, coffee, rice
          3. New economic and social structures
        3. Internal reforms enacted to stave off European control
          1. Siam, Vietnam Burma
        4. Ag. production monetized and shaped by world market

 


British in Burma

  1. Burma, 1752-1878
    1. Kongbaung Dynasty created tensions and disaffections and rebellion among monkhood, military and vassal states
      1. Important issues
        1. Anti-Konbaung rebels sought refuge across the frontier between Arakan (NW coastal Burma) and Bengal
        2. Proximity of Manipur and Assam (area today in extreme eastern India between Bengal and Burma)
      2. Classic misunderstanding between concepts of sovereignty and territory
        1. British wanted a demarcated border with sovereign control on their side
        2. Burmese envisioned zone of overlapping influences
        3. Both perceived intransigence and ignorance
        4. EIC incensed at treatment of British merchants in Rangoon
          1. King’s officials saw merchants as threat to royal monopoly
        5. Burmese could not understand British ideas of frontiers, extradition, trade
          1. Eccentric deviations from system of interstate relations
        6. Burmese insulted by GG’s insistence on being treated as equal to Burmese king
    2. Burmese troops occupied an island on the river Naaf (border), British responded in force
      1. 1824, took Rangoon without fight in large seaborne expedition
      2. Indian EIC troops marched to Ava, Treaty of Yandabo, 1826
        1. Burma ceded Arakan and Tenasserim to EIC
        2. Yielded their position in Assam and Manipur
        3. Pay $5 million indemnity
        4. Agree to exchange of diplomats
        5. Commercial treaty
    3. Second Anglo-Burmese War 1851
      1. First war caused change in royal leadership
      2. Second war over treatment of British merchants at Rangoon

 

A.                 Burma 1886

1.                  Capitalize economy, relocate population

2.                  Destroy pillars of Burmese society

a.                   Monkhood

b.                  Royal Family

c.                   Local rule

i.                     Now run by British Indian agents

3.                  Burmese situation, world’s highest literacy and lowest crime rate, reversed

4.                  Orwell

a.                   Shooting an Elephant

i.                     San Quentin

b.                  Burmese Days

  1. The British empire in India
    1. Company rule under the English East India Company
      1. EIC took advantage of Mughal decline in India, began conquest of India in 1750s
      2. Built trading cities and forts at Calcutta, Madras, Bombay
      3. Ruled domains with small British force and Indian troops called sepoys
      4. Sepoy mutiny, 1857: attacks on British civilians led to swift British reprisals
    2. British imperial rule replaced the EIC, 1858
      1. British viceroy and high-level British civil service ruled India
      2. British officials appointed a viceroy and formulated all domestic and foreign policy
      3. Indians held low-level bureaucratic positions
    3. Economic restructuring of India and Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
      1. Introduction of commercial crops: tea in Ceylon, also coffee and opium
      2. Built railroads and telegraph lines, new canals, harbors, and irrigation methods
    4. British rule did not interfere with Indian culture or Hindu religion
      1. Established English-style schools for Indian elites
      2. Outlawed Indian customs considered offensive, such as the sati

  2. Imperialism in central Asia
    1. "The Great Game" refers to competition between Britain and Russia in central Asia
      1. By 1860s Russian expansion reached northern frontiers of British India
      2. Russian and British explorers mapped, scouted, but never colonized Afghanistan
      3. Russian dominance of central Asia lasted until 1991

Dutch Cultivation System and Opium monopoly

 

Opium: the Fuel of Empire[3]

 

I.                    Intro

A.                 18th century Dutch empire closely linked to expansion of international opium trade – the fuel of empire

II.                 Uses of Opium

A.                 Control of opium trade important to Batavian govt

i.                     Ready source of cash

ii.                   Secure a dominant role in China trade

iii.                  Pioneered organization of colonial administration

B.                 Opium always profitable for visitors from west

i.                     Arab and Indian merchants introduced opium in 8th century

a.                   pain killer

b.                  cough suppressant

c.                   cure for diarrhea

ii.                   Opium long a part of materia medica of civilized world

C.                 India and Malay world, soldiers took it before battle

III.               Dutch Opium Trade

A.                 Perfected opium trade

B.                 1650s bought opium in Bengal

i.                     VOC exchanged Sumatran and Sri Lankan elephants for opium

C.                 Report from German pharmacist of primitive opium dens

i.                     ‘In Java, I saw flimsy sheds (made of reeds) in which this kind of tobacco was set out (for sale to passers-by).  No commodity throughout the Indies is retailed with greater return by the Batavians than opium, which (its) users cannot do without, nor can they come by it except it be brought by the ships of the Batavians from Bengal and Coromandel’

D.                 Dutch taught new vice, smoking pure opium instead of ingesting

i.                     No longer medicine but recreational drug

E.                  Dutch passed it on to Chinese

i.                     1660 – Opium smoking in Dutch outpost in Taiwan

ii.                   Spread to Fujian and Chinese mainland

F.                  Dutch country traders exchanged cloth and opium for Bengkali-Sumatran golddust.

i.                     Revealed secret to VOC

G.                 Raffles on opium

i.                     ‘opium has the effect of bringing into circulation the specie that might have ‘wasted’ away in the treasuries of native Javanese princes’

H.                 Crowbar crop

i.                     Few European products coveted by Asians

ii.                   Opium had leverage – exchanged for opium

a.                   Sumatran tin, pepper and gold

b.                  Java’s sugar, coffee, indigo

iii.                  Opium was substitute for cash

iv.                 Opium War – 1839 China

IV.              British Trade

A.                 British controlled source of opium

B.                 Greatest profits in East Indies came from selling opium to its subjects

i.                     Farming out monopoly

V.                 Farming System

A.                 Wealthy Chinese bid for right to retail opium to population

i.                     Liberated Javanese and Chinese peasant free cash

B.                 Still in opium business in 1942


French Indochina

Economic Modernization and Imperialism, 1815-1860[4]

I.                    Industrial Revolution

A.                 Its effect was as significant for Europe’s relationship with the rest of the world as it was for Europe’s relationship with its own population

1.                  Domestically industrialization created a bourgeoisie with capital to invest at home and abroad and created a proletariat whom the government used its colonial policies to pacify

B.                 Cotton industry

1.                  Innovations in spinning and machine weaving made cotton cloth cheap and desirable worldwide

2.                   Industrial revolution created goods which needed markets, markets containing consumers

II.                 “Free-Trade Imperialism”

A.                 Gallagher and Robinson thesis

1.                  British policy in first half of 19th century, especially Latin America

a.                   Argentine beef and cattle industry

i.                     Started by British capital investment and oriented to Britain

2.                  British advocacy of free trade policy for the whole world as a conscious mask for British economic interests

3.                  Before 1850, British had no international industrial competition to speak of

a.                   British exporters favored ideology and foreign policy which:

i.                     Sought in the name of progress and civilization to remove all barriers to the free passage of manufactured goods and raw materials

ii.                   Establishment of consular services

iii.                  Almost standardized military response to direct threats to British property

4.                  Ideology (never reality) centered around notion that Britain was the ‘workshop of the world’, specialized in industrial production while everyone else produced raw materials

B.                 Opium Wars

1.                  British want tea and opium is the only British product with a market in China

2.                  First Opium War

a.                   1839, Chinese government confiscates British opium warehouse in Guangzhou (Canton)

b.                  British send in warships

c.                   Treaty of Nanking, 1842

i.                     Chinese forced to pay large indemnity

ii.                   Open five ports to British trade and residence

iii.                  Cede Hong Kong to Britain

iv.                 Extraterritoriality for British (other Europeans follow)

C.                 French in Vietnam and Kampuchea

1.                  Domestic politics and ‘Man on the Spot’ opportunities

2.                  Persecution of Catholics (and Buddhists, etc.) by Nguyen Dynasty

a.                   pretext for French invasion

3.                  Emboldened by British success in opening up China Trade, Opium war

a.                   Increase of French merchant presence in China after opium war

i.                     5 Chinese ports open up

b.                  1846 French merchant and naval ships interverned, blockading Da Nang

i.                     demand release of condemned priest

4.                  Mekong sought for access to China

a.                   Prestige for Napoleon III

i.                     Rival base to Singapore and Hong Kong in south China trade

D.                 Second Opium War

a.                   1856, Guangzhou police board British ship Arrow and charge crew with smuggling

b.                  Another British offensive

c.                   British and French forces win swiftly in 1857

d.                  Tension over 1858 Treaty of Tianjin

i.                     British and French troops occupy Beijing and burn Summer Palace

e.                   Treaty ratified

i.                     Additional trading ports opened

ii.                   Foreign emissaries in Beijing

iii.                  Christian missionaries in China

iv.                 Open Chinese interior to travel

v.                   Legalized opium importation


European Origins of “New Imperialism” 1860-1900

II.                 Economic Downturn of the 1870s coincided with the explosion of nationalisms and unification across Europe – these energies and frustrations were unleashed overseas

III.               New Technologies, New Ideologies of Empire

A.                 Steam ship, Suez Canal, quinine

B.                 Only in 19th century had Europe developed clear notions of race and nationhood

C.                 Mestizo and creole pattern of intermarriage and racial mixing in older empires like the Spanish, Dutch and Portuguese was jettisoned in favor of a policy of containment and apartness as Europeans fears of racial contamination and their self-awareness as Europeans grew

D.                 Only these new technologies make the new ideologies possible

IV.              Dutch apartheid, Sepoy mutiny

 

  1. Legacies of imperialism
    1. Empire and economy: two patterns of changes
      1. Colonial rule transformed traditional production of crops and commodities
        1. Indian cotton grown to serve British textile industry
        2. Inexpensive imported textiles undermined Indian production
      2. New crops transformed landscape and society
        1. Rain forests of Ceylon converted to tea plantations
        2. Ceylonese women recruited to harvest tea
        3. Rubber plantations transformed Malaya and Sumatra
    2. Labor migrations
      1. European migration
        1. Fifty million Europeans migrated 1800-1914, over half to the United States
        2. Other settler colonies in Canada, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa
        3. Most European migrants became cultivators, herders, or skilled laborers
      2. Indentured labor migration more typical from Asia, Africa, and Pacific islands
        1. About 2.5 million indentured laborers globally during 1820-1914
        2. Indentured migrants tended to work on tropical and subtropical plantations
        3. Example: Indian laborers to Pacific island and Caribbean plantations
        4. Japanese laborers to Hawaiian sugar plantations
      3. Large-scale migrations reflected global influence of imperialism
    3. Empire and society
      1. Colonial conflict not uncommon in nineteenth century
        1. In India, numerous insurrections, such as the sepoy rebellion of 1857
        2. 1905, Maji Maji rebellion in east Africa thought traditional magic would defeat the Germans
        3. Resistance included boycotts, political parties, anticolonial publications
        4. Conflict among different groups united under colonial rule, for example, Hawaii
      2. "Scientific racism" popular in nineteenth century
        1. Race became the measure of human potential; Europeans considered superior
        2. Gobineau divided humanity into four main racial groups, each with peculiar traits
        3. Social Darwinism: "survival of fittest" used to justify European domination
      3. Colonial experience only reinforced popular racism
        1. Assumed moral superiority of Europeans
        2. Racist views in U.S. treatment of Filipinos, Japanese treatment of Koreans
    4. Nationalism and anticolonial movements
      1. Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833), "father of modern India"
        1. Sought an Indian society based on European science and traditional Hinduism
        2. Used press to mobilize educated Hindus and advance reform
      2. The Indian National Congress, founded 1885
        1. Educated Indians met, with British approval, to discuss public affairs
        2. Congress aired grievances about colonial rule, sought Indian self-rule
        3. 1906, All-India Muslim League formed to advance interests of Indian Muslims
      3. Limited reform, 1909; wealthy Indians could elect representatives to local councils
        1. Indian nationalism a powerful movement, achieved independence in 1947
        2. India served as a model for anticolonial campaigns in other lands


[1] Anthony Reid, Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce 1450-1680, Volume Two: Expansion and Crisis (New Haven: Yale UP, 1993).

[2] Anthony Reid, ‘The Seventeenth-Century Crisis in Southeast Asia’, Modern Asian Studies 24, 4 (1990), pp. 639-659.

[3] Carl Trocki, Early Modern History, 88-89

[4] Many of my notes are from Woodruff D. Smith, European Imperialism in the 19th and 20th Centuries (Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1982) and Hobsbawn, Age of Empire