Word Study

 

Point 1. Omission of the number-word. Quite frequently you will hear an example of a classifier which is not preceded by a number-word, as in the following sentences:

phǒm càʔ pay sʉ́ʉ rôm sàk khan.
ผมจะไปซื้อร่มสักคัน
I'm going to buy an umbrella.
khǎw tɔ̂ŋkaan rɔɔŋtháaw sàk khûu.
เขาต้องการรองเท้าสักคู่
He wants a pair of shoes.

In all examples of this sort, the word nʉ́́ŋ óne' has been omitted, and since no other number-word is ever omitted, it is always clear that the quantity meant is 'one'.

 

Point2. A new number-word. In the Basic Sentences of this unit there is a new number-word, baaŋ 'some.'It behaves just like other number-words and is therefore always followed by a classifier, as in,

phûuchaay baaŋ khon
ผู้ชายบางคน

some men

nǎŋsʉ̌ʉ baaŋ lêm
หนังสือบางเล่ม

some books

The word baaŋ also occurs in a number of important phrases in which it does not need to be preceded by a noun, e.g.,

baaŋ khon
บางคน
someone, somebody, some people
baaŋ hɛ̀ɛŋ
บางแห่ง
somewhere, some places
baaŋ wan
บางวัน
some days

Examples of these phrases in sentences are:

baaŋ khon mây chɔ̂ɔp fǒn ləəy.
บางคนไม่ชอบฝนเลย
Some people don't like rain at all.
nay ʔàmeeríkaa baaŋ hɛ̀ɛŋ fǒn tòk mâak.
ในอเมริกาบางแห่งฝนตกมาก
In America it rains a lot in some places.
baaŋ wan khǎw pay tham ŋaan mây dây.
บางวันเขาไปทำงานไม่ได้
Some days he can't go to work.

 

Point 3. The word thúk. This word is used much like our English word 'every,' as is readily seen in phrases like the following:

thúk khon
ทุกคน
everyone, everybody
thúk hɛ̀ɛŋ
ทุกแห่ง
everywhere, every place
thúk yàaŋ
ทุกอย่าง
everything
thúk wan
ทุกวัน
every day

In each of the phrases above thuk is followed by a classifier and this makes it appear that thúk should be considered a number-word like baaŋ (Point 2 above). However, thúk also has another kind of use, as in

thúk sǎam dʉan
ทุกสามเดือน
every three months

Since thúk can, as in the example just given, be followed by a number-word, it is therefore not to be considered a number-word itself. Instead, examples in which the number-word is omitted after thúk are like those already discussed in Point 1 (Omission of the number-word) above.

One other important point about the use of phrases containing thúk is illustrated in the two sentences below:

thúk khon khuan càʔ mii rôm.
ทุกคนควรจะมีร่ม
Everybody should have an umbrella.
dèk thúk khon chɔ̂ɔp pay duu nǎŋ.
เด็กทุกคนชอบไปดูหนัง
All children like to go to the movies,' lit. , Every child likes to go to the movies.

In the first example above the phrase containing thuk is used without a preceding noun, while in the second example it is used with a preceding noun. When such phrases are used with nouns, they must, of course, contain the classifier which is properly used with the given noun.

 

Point 4. The word sii. This word is placed at the end of a sentence (followed only by a polite word). It has the force of a request or mild command and is used in urging someone to do something. It also occurs in the variant form síʔ or, sometimes, sìʔ . Examples:

duu nân sii khráp.
ดูนั่นสิครับ
Look at that! or [Would you] look at that!
kin sii khráp.
กินสิครับ
[Go ahead and] eat!
chəən khâw maa siʔ khráp.
เชิญเข้ามาสิครับ
Come on in!

 

Point 5. The use of sùan. The word sùan means 'part' or 'on the part of.' In the Basic Sentences of this unit you have the word in the expression sùan phǒm 'for my part, as for me' (literally, 'on the part of me'). Besides its use in this expression it occurs with other pronouns and also with nouns. Examples:

sùan dìchǎn
ส่วนดิฉัน
'for my part, as for me'(woman speaking)
sùan khǎw
ส่วนเขา
ón his part, as for him'or ón her part, as for her
sùan mɔ̌ɔ
ส่วนหมอ
ón the doctor's part, as for the doctor
sùan khun khǎm
ส่วนคุณขาม
on kham's part, as for kham

    These expressions containing sùan are usually found in sentences where a contrast is being made, e.g., nɔ́ɔŋchaay phǒm chɔ̂ɔp nâanǎaw, tɛ̀ɛ sùan phǒm chɔ̂ɔp nâarɔ́ɔn mâak kwàa. 'My younger brother likes winter, but for my part [I] like summer better.'

 

Point 6. The words baaŋ and bâaŋ. Both of these words are usually translated 'some' in English, but their use and meaning are not quite the same, as can be seen in the following examples:

nǎŋsʉ̌ʉ baaŋ lêm phɛɛŋ kəən pay.
หนังสือบางเล่มแพงเกินไป
Some books (i.e., certain books) are too expensive.
phǒm yàak càʔ sʉ́ʉ nǎŋsʉ̌ʉ bâaŋ.
ผมอยากจะซื้อหนังสือบ้าง
I want to buy some books (i.e., some of that which is called books).
khun càʔ sʉ́ʉ ʔàray bâaŋ.
คุณจะซื้ออะไรบ้าง
What are you going to buy? or What are some of the things you are going to buy?

The word baaŋ is a number-word (see Point 2 above) and must therefore always be followed by a classifier; its meaning, in more precise terms is 'some' in the sense of 'certain.' The word bâaŋ, however, is never used with a classifier and its meaning, in more precise terms, is 'some of it, some of them, to some extent.'

 

Point 7. The words nǎaw and yen. Both of these words are translated 'to be cold' in English but they are generally employed in different situations, as is illustrated in the following sentences:

khun nǎaw mǎy.
คุณหนาวไหม
Are you cold?
mʉʉ phǒm yen.
มือผมเย็น
My hands are cold.
kaafɛ yen lɛ́ɛw.
กาแฟเย็นแล้ว
The coffee has gotten cold.
wanníi ʔaakàat nǎaw
(or) wanníi ʔaakàat yen.
วันนี้อากาศหนาว (หรือ)วันนี้อากาศเย็น
The weather is cold today. Also: The weather is cool today.

Thus nǎaw expresses the idea of feeling cold (personal sensation) and is used of the inner sensation of cold as undergone by living things. The word yen, on the other hand, is used of all non-living things, including the parts of the body (as in the second example above). Both words are used when speaking of the weather.

 

Point 8. The words phráʔaathít and dɛ̀ɛt. Strictly speaking, phráʔaathit means 'the sun'and dɛ̀ɛt means 'sunshine.' However, in English we often say 'sun' when what we are really talking about is 'sunshine.' Therefore to use the two Thai words properly, you must consider whether you mean the sun or sunshine. If you memorize the following common expressions, you will have little difficulty with the words:

phráʔaathít sɔ̀ɔŋsɛ̌ɛŋ sàwàaŋ.
พระอาทิตย์ส่องแสงสว่าง
The sun is shining brightly.
phǒm chɔ̂ɔp dɛ̀t.
ผมชอบเด็ก
I like the sun,í.e., 'I like the sunshine.
dɛ̀ɛt càʔ ʔɔ̀ɔk ʔìik.
แดดจะออกอีก
'The sun will come out again'(i.e., the sunshine, since the sun is always there).

 

Point 9. Some new classifiers.

a. khan. This classifier is used for umbrellas and for certain other words you have not yet had (spoons, forks, and most vehicles). Examples with rôm úmbrella' are:

rôm sɔ̌ɔŋ khan
ร่มสองคัน
two umbrellas.
rôm khan nǎy
ร่มคันไหน
which umbrella?

b. kɔ̂ɔn. This classifier is used for clouds and for other things having the form of a lump, e.g., lumps of sugar, cakes of soap, stones, and the like. Examples:

mêek lǎay kɔ̂ɔn
เมฆหลายก้อน
many clouds
mêek kɔ̂ɔn yày
เมฆก้อนใหญ่
the big cloud
námtaan kìi kɔ̂ɔn
น้ำตาลกี่ก้อน
How many lumps of sugar?
námtaan kɔ̂ɔn lék
น้ำตาลก้อนเล็ก
the small lump of sugar

 

Point 10. Some special phrases.

ʔìik nɔ̀ɔy
อีกหน่อย
'in a little while' or 'a little more,' composed of ʔiik 'more, else' and nɔ̀ɔy 'a little, a little bit'.
chên khəəy
เช่นเคย
'as usual,' lit. 'as [it] ever [is],' composed of chên 'such as, as' and khəəy 'to be used to (something); used to (do something), ever.'
fǒn tòk
ฝนตก
'to rain,' lit. 'the rain falls.'
mii pràyòot
มีประโยชน์
'to be useful, advantageous,' lit. 'to have an advantage, have usefulness.'
nɔɔn làp
นอนหลับ
'to sleep, to be asleep, to be able to sleep, lit. 'to lie sleeping.'
nɔɔn mây làp
นอนไม่หลับ
'to be unable to sleep,' lit. 'to lie not sleeping, to lie sleepless.'
phɔɔ sàbaay
พอสบาย
'to be just right (when speaking of comfort), composed of phɔɔ 'to be enough, sufficient' and sàbaay 'to be well (in health), comfortable; comfortably.

 

Point 11. Some compounds.

nâafǒn
หน้าฝน
'the rainy season,' from nâa 'season'+ fǒn 'rain' (Note: carefully that nâa is not used by itself with the meaning of 'season'; for this the word ráduu must be used. In addition the word ráduufǒn is also used in the same meaning as nâafǒn.)
nâanǎaw
หน้าหนาว
'winter' lit. 'the cold season'Also: ráduunǎaw.
nâarɔ́ɔn
หน้าร้อน
'summer,' lit. 'the hot season.'Also:  ráduurɔ́ɔn.
ráduufǒn
ฤดูฝน
same as nâafǒn.
ráduunǎaw
ฤดูหนาว
same as nâanǎaw.
ráduurɔ́ɔn
ฤดูหนาว
same as nâarɔ́ɔn.
sʉ̂afǒn
เสื้อฝน
'raincoat,' from sʉ̂a 'coat' + fǒn.