Point 1. Omission of the number-word. Quite frequently you will hear an example of a classifier which is not preceded by a number-word, as in the following sentences:
|phǒm càʔ pay sʉ́ʉ rôm sàk khan.
|I'm going to buy an umbrella.|
|khǎw tɔ̂ŋkaan rɔɔŋtháaw
|He wants a pair of shoes.|
In all examples of this sort, the word nʉ́́ŋ óne' has been omitted, and since no other number-word is ever omitted, it is always clear that the quantity meant is 'one'.
Point2. A new number-word. In the Basic Sentences of this unit there is a new number-word, baaŋ 'some.'It behaves just like other number-words and is therefore always followed by a classifier, as in,
The word baaŋ also occurs in a number of important phrases in which it does not need to be preceded by a noun, e.g.,
|someone, somebody, some people|
|somewhere, some places|
Examples of these phrases in sentences are:
khon mây chɔ̂ɔp fǒn ləəy.
|Some people don't like rain at all.|
baaŋ hɛ̀ɛŋ fǒn tòk mâak.
|In America it rains a lot in some places.|
khǎw pay tham ŋaan mây
|Some days he can't go to work.|
Point 3. The word thúk. This word is used much like our English word 'every,' as is readily seen in phrases like the following:
|everywhere, every place|
In each of the phrases above thuk is followed by a classifier and this makes it appear that thúk should be considered a number-word like baaŋ (Point 2 above). However, thúk also has another kind of use, as in
|thúk sǎam dʉan
|every three months|
Since thúk can, as in the example just given, be followed by a number-word, it is therefore not to be considered a number-word itself. Instead, examples in which the number-word is omitted after thúk are like those already discussed in Point 1 (Omission of the number-word) above.
One other important point about the use of phrases containing thúk is illustrated in the two sentences below:
khon khuan càʔ mii rôm.
|Everybody should have an umbrella.|
|dèk thúk khon chɔ̂ɔp pay duu nǎŋ.
|All children like to go to the movies,' lit. , Every child likes to go to the movies.|
In the first example above the phrase containing thuk is used without a preceding noun, while in the second example it is used with a preceding noun. When such phrases are used with nouns, they must, of course, contain the classifier which is properly used with the given noun.
Point 4. The word sii. This word is placed at the end of a sentence (followed only by a polite word). It has the force of a request or mild command and is used in urging someone to do something. It also occurs in the variant form síʔ or, sometimes, sìʔ . Examples:
|Look at that! or [Would you] look at that!|
|kin sii khráp.
|[Go ahead and] eat!|
|chəən khâw maa siʔ khráp.
|Come on in!|
Point 5. The use of sùan. The word sùan means 'part' or 'on the part of.' In the Basic Sentences of this unit you have the word in the expression sùan phǒm 'for my part, as for me' (literally, 'on the part of me'). Besides its use in this expression it occurs with other pronouns and also with nouns. Examples:
|'for my part, as for me'(woman speaking)|
|ón his part, as for him'or ón her part, as for her|
|ón the doctor's part, as for the doctor|
|on kham's part, as for kham|
These expressions containing sùan are usually found in sentences where a contrast is being made, e.g., nɔ́ɔŋchaay phǒm chɔ̂ɔp nâanǎaw, tɛ̀ɛ sùan phǒm chɔ̂ɔp nâarɔ́ɔn mâak kwàa. 'My younger brother likes winter, but for my part [I] like summer better.'
Point 6. The words baaŋ and bâaŋ. Both of these words are usually translated 'some' in English, but their use and meaning are not quite the same, as can be seen in the following examples:
|nǎŋsʉ̌ʉ baaŋ lêm phɛɛŋ kəən pay.
|Some books (i.e., certain books) are too expensive.|
yàak càʔ sʉ́ʉ
|I want to buy some books (i.e., some of that which is called books).|
|khun càʔ sʉ́ʉ ʔàray bâaŋ.
|What are you going to buy? or What are some of the things you are going to buy?|
The word baaŋ is a number-word (see Point 2 above) and must therefore always be followed by a classifier; its meaning, in more precise terms is 'some' in the sense of 'certain.' The word bâaŋ, however, is never used with a classifier and its meaning, in more precise terms, is 'some of it, some of them, to some extent.'
Point 7. The words nǎaw and yen. Both of these words are translated 'to be cold' in English but they are generally employed in different situations, as is illustrated in the following sentences:
|Are you cold?|
|mʉʉ phǒm yen.
|My hands are cold.|
|The coffee has gotten cold.|
(or) wanníi ʔaakàat yen.
|The weather is cold today. Also: The weather is cool today.|
Thus nǎaw expresses the idea of feeling cold (personal sensation) and is used of the inner sensation of cold as undergone by living things. The word yen, on the other hand, is used of all non-living things, including the parts of the body (as in the second example above). Both words are used when speaking of the weather.
Point 8. The words phráʔaathít and dɛ̀ɛt. Strictly speaking, phráʔaathit means 'the sun'and dɛ̀ɛt means 'sunshine.' However, in English we often say 'sun' when what we are really talking about is 'sunshine.' Therefore to use the two Thai words properly, you must consider whether you mean the sun or sunshine. If you memorize the following common expressions, you will have little difficulty with the words:
|phráʔaathít sɔ̀ɔŋsɛ̌ɛŋ sàwàaŋ.
|The sun is shining brightly.|
|phǒm chɔ̂ɔp dɛ̀t.
|I like the sun,í.e., 'I like the sunshine.|
|dɛ̀ɛt càʔ ʔɔ̀ɔk
|'The sun will come out again'(i.e., the sunshine, since the sun is always there).|
Point 9. Some new classifiers.
a. khan. This classifier is used for umbrellas and for certain other words you have not yet had (spoons, forks, and most vehicles). Examples with rôm úmbrella' are:
|rôm sɔ̌ɔŋ khan
b. kɔ̂ɔn. This classifier is used for clouds and for other things having the form of a lump, e.g., lumps of sugar, cakes of soap, stones, and the like. Examples:
|mêek lǎay kɔ̂ɔn
|mêek kɔ̂ɔn yày
|the big cloud|
|How many lumps of sugar?|
|the small lump of sugar|
Point 10. Some special phrases.
|'in a little while' or 'a little more,' composed of ʔiik 'more, else' and nɔ̀ɔy 'a little, a little bit'.|
|'as usual,' lit. 'as [it] ever [is],' composed of chên 'such as, as' and khəəy 'to be used to (something); used to (do something), ever.'|
|'to rain,' lit. 'the rain falls.'|
|'to be useful, advantageous,' lit. 'to have an advantage, have usefulness.'|
|'to sleep, to be asleep, to be able to sleep, lit. 'to lie sleeping.'|
|'to be unable to sleep,' lit. 'to lie not sleeping, to lie sleepless.'|
|'to be just right (when speaking of comfort), composed of phɔɔ 'to be enough, sufficient' and sàbaay 'to be well (in health), comfortable; comfortably.|
Point 11. Some compounds.
|'the rainy season,' from nâa 'season'+ fǒn 'rain' (Note: carefully that nâa is not used by itself with the meaning of 'season'; for this the word ráduu must be used. In addition the word ráduufǒn is also used in the same meaning as nâafǒn.)|
|'winter' lit. 'the cold season'Also: ráduunǎaw.|
|'summer,' lit. 'the hot season.'Also: ráduurɔ́ɔn.|
|same as nâafǒn.|
|same as nâanǎaw.|
|same as nâarɔ́ɔn.|
|'raincoat,' from sʉ̂a 'coat' + fǒn.|