Word Study


Point 1. A new use for khʉ̂n and loŋ. These two words have opposite meanings, khʉ̂n meaning 'to ascend, rise' and loŋ meaning 'to descend.' In this unit you have had some examples of the use of these words with different types of vehicles. These examples and similar ones are:

With khʉ̂n

khʉ̂n rótraaŋ
'to get on a streetcar' or
'to catch a streetcar'
khʉ̂n rótyon
'to get in an automobile'
khʉ̂n rótthɛ́ksîi
'to get in a taxi' or
'to take a taxi'
khʉ̂n rótfay
'to get on a train' or
'to take a train' or
'to catch a train'


With loŋ

loŋ rótraaŋ
'to get off a streetcar' or
'to get out of a streetcar'
loŋ rótyon
'to get out of an automobile'
loŋ rótthɛ́ksîi
'to get out of a taxi'
loŋ rótfay
'to get off a train'

You will notice that when khʉ̂n is used with a vehicle it means to get in, to get on, to catch, or to take that vehicle. This means that when you have any of these various expressions in English, you must remember to use khʉ̂n in Thai, and not any of the ordinary words for 'to get in' or 'to take' which you have also learned. A similar caution likewise applies to the use of loŋ with vehicles, for it then means to get off or to get out of a vehicle.

Point 2. Another new use for khʉ̂n and loŋ. When used after other verbs khʉ̂n generally means 'up' (as in lúk khʉ̂n 'to get up') and loŋ generally means 'down' (as in nâŋ loŋ 'to sit down'). Expressions which are somewhat similar to this but which often have special translations in English are shown below:

With khʉ̂n

ʔûan khʉ̂n
'to get fat' or
'to get fatter' (Compare the English expression 'to fatten up' which is generally used only when speaking of animals).
dii khʉ̂n
'to get better.'
rɔ́ɔn khʉ̂n
'to get hot' or 'to get hotter' (Compare English 'to get heated up').


With loŋ

yen loŋ
'to get cool' or
'to get cooler' or
'to cool off' or
'to cool down'
cháa loŋ
'to get better.'

These examples show that the typical meanings of khʉ̂n and loŋ, when they follow another verb, are still up and down, respectively. However, the more usual English translation for Thai expressions like those above is one containing to get (fat, better, hot, cool, slower, etc.) and not one containing 'up' or 'down.'

Point 3. When ʔìik means 'another' or 'the other.' The usual meaning of ʔìik is 'more' (as in ʔìik nɔ̀ɔy 'a little more') or 'else' (as in ʔàray ʔìik 'what else?'). Sometimes, however, the word has some other possible translations in English. Some of these are shown below:

rotraaŋ càʔ maa thʉ̌ŋ ʔìik hâa naathii

'the streetcar will come in five minutes' or
'in another five minutes' or
'in five minutes more'

phǒm tɔ̂ŋ tham ŋaan ʔìik sìphâa naathii

'I have to work another fifteen minutes' or
'fifteen minutes more.'

phǒm tɔ̂ŋkaan klûay ʔìik hòk bay

'I want another six bananas' or 'six bananas more.'

phǒm mii nɔ́ɔŋchaay sɔ̌ɔŋ khon. khon nʉ̀ŋ pen phɛ̂ɛt lɛ́ʔ ʔìik khon nʉ̀ŋ pen khruu
ผมมีน้องชายสองคน  คนหนึ่งเป็นแพทย์และอีกคนหนึ่งเป็นครู

'I have two younger brothers. One is a doctor and the other one is a teacher.'

In examples like those ʔìik is usually translated as another or as the other, though sometimes it can still be translated as more (as in the first three examples above). Note particularly that the position for ʔìik in these expressions is immediately before the number-word with one exception. This exception occurs in expressions containing nʉ̀ŋ 'one'; for in these ʔìik precedes the classifier if that in turn precedes nʉ̀ŋ (as in ʔìik khon nʉ̀ŋ in the last example above).

Point 4. The word klàp. Notice the following examples of klàp 'to return' followed by pay 'to go' or maa 'to come':

phǒm tɔ̂ŋ klàp pay bâan.

'I have to go back home.'

khun càʔ klàp maa mʉ̂aray.

'When will you come back?'

You will observe that klàp pay means 'to go back' and klàp maa means 'to come back.' The important thing to remember is that the words for go and come when used with klàp come second and not first as in English.

Point 5. The two words rót. In Unit 10 you learned the word rót in the meaning 'taste, flavor.' In this unit you have it in the meaning 'car.' The two words sound exactly alike but they have quite unrelated meanings.

Point 6. The words klay and klây. Take particular care not to confuse these two words for they have exactly opposite meanings. The first one klay 'to be far, far away' has the middle tone and the second one klây 'to be near, close, nearby' has the falling tone.

Point 7. Some classifiers.
a. chu
́t. This word means 'suit, set' and in this unit is used as the classifier for suits of clothing, e.g.,

sʉ̂akaaŋkeeŋ nʉ̀ŋ chút
'one suit of clothes'

b. khan. You have already learned to use this classifier for umbrellas, forks, and spoons. In this unit it turns up again as the classifier for streetcars, automobiles, and taxis, e.g.,

rótraaŋ nʉ̀ŋ khan
'one streetcar'
rótyon khan nǎy
'which automobile?'

c. lêm. This classifier is used for mîit 'knife' and also for mîitkoon 'razor,' as in

mîitkoon lêm diaw
'a single razor'

d. hɛ̀ɛŋ. Since this is the regular classifier for localities, it may be used with the words for hospital, school, and various kinds of stores, e.g.,

rooŋpháyaabaan sɔ̌ɔŋ hɛ̀ɛŋ
'two hospitals'
hâaŋ lǎay hɛ̀ɛŋ
'many stores, firms'
ráantàtsʉ̂a hɛ̀ɛŋ nǎy
'which tailor-shop'

In the case of the word hâaŋ 'store, commercial firm,' the classifier hɛ̀ɛŋ may be replaced by hâaŋ (e.g., hâaŋ lǎay hâaŋ 'many stores, firms'). Similarly, the word ráantàtsʉ̂a 'tailor-shop' and any other compound words containing ráan may take ráan as their classifier; see the following paragraph.

e. ráan. This word may be used as the classifier for any compound word containing ráan, e.g.,

ráantàtsʉ̂a kìi ráan
'how many tailor-shops?'

f. sǎay. This classifier is generally used with long ribbon-like objects, such as streets, e.g.,

thànǒn sǎay níi
'this street'

g. tua. Since tua is used as the classifier for sʉ̂a 'coat' and for kaaŋkeeŋ 'trousers, pants,' it is also the classifier for sʉ̂achánnay 'undershirt' and for kaaŋkeeŋchánnay 'shorts.'

Point 8. Some compounds.

'toothpaste,' lit. 'tooth-rubbing medicine.'
Compare: pr
ɛɛŋsǐifan 'toothbrush'
'razor,' lit. 'shaving-knife.'
'school,' lit. 'learning-structure,' from rooŋ 'building, structure' + rian 'to learn, study.'
'day off, holiday, vacation, 'lit. 'stopping day'
same as wanyùt, lit. 'work-stopping day.'