Describing Activities
Using -in, I- and an Affixes

Click on a category, and study each grammar point.
Click on the green button, and listen to the words and sentences.

 

Larsen01Fig1.gif (6056 bytes)

 

vocabulary.gif (2771 bytes)

Form

When the focus of the sentence is the object or goal of the action, the verb uses the affixes -in, -an and i-.   The -in affix is attached to the root of the verb to form the infinitive form.  If the root ends in a vowel, -hin is added.

example:

turqball.gif (579 bytes)alis - turqball.gif (579 bytes)alisin
turqball.gif (579 bytes)basa- turqball.gif (579 bytes)basahin

The completed aspect is formed by placing -in before the first vowel of the root. 

turqball.gif (579 bytes)inalis
turqball.gif (579 bytes)binasa

The incompleted aspect is formed by placing -in before the first vowel and then repetition of the first syllable of the root.

turqball.gif (579 bytes)inaalis
turqball.gif (579 bytes)binabasa

The contemplated is formed by attaching -in/-hin to the root and then repetition of the first syllable.

 

Root

Infinitive

Completed

Incompleted

Contemplated

alis

alisin inalis inaalis aalisin

basa

basahin binasa binabasa babasahin

ayos

ayusin inayos inaayos aayusin

example:
Click on the green button to listen to the sentence.

turqball.gif (579 bytes) Inalis ng guro ang papel sa mesa kahapon.
turqball.gif (579 bytes) Babasahin ko ang libro bukas.
turqball.gif (579 bytes)Inaayos ni Ben ang kanyang kotse.

I- affix is attached before the root of the verb to form the infinitive.

turqball.gif (579 bytes)tapon - turqball.gif (579 bytes)itapon

The completed aspect is formed by inserting the affix -in before the first vowel of the root. 

turqball.gif (579 bytes)itinapon

The incompleted aspect is formed by repeating the first syllable of the root and inserting -in before the first vowel of the repeated syllable. 

turqball.gif (579 bytes)itinatapon

The contemplated aspect is formed by repeating the first syllable of the root and placing i- before the repeated syllable.

Root Infinitive Completed Incompleted Contemplated
tapon itapon itinapon itinatapon itatapon

-An is attached to the root of the verb.   The infinitive is formed by attaching -an to the root of the verb ending in a consonant and -han if the verb ends is a vowel. 

turqball.gif (579 bytes)punas - turqball.gif (579 bytes)punasan

The completed aspect is formed by placing -in before the first vowel of the root and placing -an/-han at the end of the root. 

turqball.gif (579 bytes)pinunasan

The incompleted aspect is formed by repetition of the first syllable of the root and inserting -in before the first vowel of the repeated syllable. 

turqball.gif (579 bytes)pinupunasan

The contemplated is formed by repetition of the first syllable of the root and attaching -an/-han to the root.

pupunasan

Root Infinitive Completed Incompleted Contemplated
punas punasan pinunasan pinupunasan pupunasan

top

vocabulary.gif (2771 bytes)

Use

Goal focus verbs are used in describing completed, incompleted, and contemplated activities with the object as the focus of the sentence.

 

Verb

Actor

Object
(Focus)

Location/Time expression

Hinuhugasan

ko

ang gulay

sa labas.

Hinugasan

niya

ang kotse.

kahapon.

Huhugasan

nila

ang mga bintana

sa Sabado.

example:
Click on the green button to listen to the sentence.

turqball.gif (579 bytes) Hinuhugasan ko ang gulay sa labas.
turqball.gif (579 bytes) Hinugasan niya ang kotse kahapon.
turqball.gif (579 bytes) Huhugasan nila ang bintana sa Sabado.

top

vocabulary.gif (2771 bytes)

Meaning

Object/goal focus sentences indicate that the most important part of the sentence is the goal/object.  The object is marked by ang and si (for singular), ang mga, and sina (for plural).  These goal focus sentences answer the question "What did you(action)?  What are you (action)? What will you (action)?"

example:

turqball.gif (579 bytes)Ano ang kinain mo kanina?
turqball.gif (579 bytes)Kinain ko ang saging at mansanas.

turqball.gif (579 bytes)Ano ang sinusulatan mo?
turqball.gif (579 bytes)Sinusulatan ko ang aking papel.

top