Beneficiary Focus (BF)

There are two affixes that mark the beneficiary focus: IPAG- and -AN. Attaching any of these affixes to a root indicates that the focus of the sentence is the noun for whom/which the action is done. This is different from the object focus. IPAG and -AN mark the focus as the word that receives the benefit of the action. In English, this word that receives the benefit of the action is called the indirect object. Let's take a look at an example in English:

1. Fred gave the car to Bob.         BENEFICIARY FOCUSED

In English, car is the direct object and Bob is the indirect object. Bob got the benefit from receiving the car. In Tagalog, if the word Bob is the word that is in focus, then the sentence would be Beneficiary Focused.

However, if the word car in this sentence were the focus, then the sentence would be Object Focused in Tagalog:

2. Fred gave the car to Bob.         OBJECT FOCUSED

As mentioned above, if the benefactor (or indirect object) is the focus then the affix IPAG or -AN is placed in the verb. If the benefactor is not in focus, however, then the benefactor would would be marked by PARA SA in front.

IPAG- Verbs

IPAG- is the prototypical beneficiary focus verbal affix. Most of the time, this affix is shortened to I-, especially when the verb root to which it is attached does not have an I- object focus form.

Root Benefic. F. Verb Beneficiary F. Sentence Converted Actor Focus Sentence
luto ipagluto
to cook something for someone
Ipagluto mo ang nanay ng lumpiya.
Cook the egg roll for Mother.
Magluto ka ng lumpiya para sa nanay.
Cook the egg roll for Mother.
handa ipaghanda
to prepare something for someone
Ipaghanda mo si Lina ng damit.
Prepare clothes for Lina.
Maghanda ka ng damit para kay Lina.
Prepare clothes for Lina.
laba ipaglaba
to do laundry for someone
Ipaglaba mo ako.
Do the laundry for me.
Maglaba ka para sa akin.
Do the laundry for me.
hugas ipaghugas
to do the dishes for someone
Ipaghugas mo siya ng mga plato.
Do the dishes for her.
Maghugas ka ng mga plato para sa kanya.
Do the dishes for here.

 

-AN Verbs

There are some roots that take the affix -AN to form beneficiary focus verbs. Following a word that ends in a vowel, it has the form -HAN. These should not be confused with the location/direction focus forms.


Here are some examples of Beneficiary Focus -AN verbs and sentences:

Root Verb Beneficiary F. Sentence Converted Actor Focus Sentence
bili bilhan
to buy something for someone
Bilhan mo ang bata ng kendi.
Buy the kid a candybar.
Bumili ka ng kendi para sa bata.
Buy a candybar for the kid.
kanta kantahan
to sing for someone
Kantahan mo si Noel ng kundiman.
Sing Noel a love song.
Kumanta ka ng kundiman para kay Noel.
Sing a love song for Noel.
luto lutuan
to cook for someone
Lutuan mo siya ng adobo.
Cook adobo for him.
Magluto ka ng adobo para sa kanya.
Cook adobo for him.
timpla timplahan
to prepare a drink for someone
Timplahan mo ako ng kape.
Prepare coffee for me.
Magtimpla ka ng kape para sa akin.
Prepare coffee for me.