Object-Focus Verbs

This page presents examples of the most common object-focus verbs in their infinitive and different aspect forms. A brief explanation of how to form the different aspects is also provided for each of the tables.

-IN Verbs
Root Infinitive Completed Incompleted Contemplated
kain kainin
to eat
kinain kinakain kakainin
putol putulin
to cut/break
pinutol pinuputol puputulin
basa* basahin
to read something
binasa binabasa babasahin
bili* bilhin
to buy something
binili binibili bibilhin
luto* lutuin
to cook something
niluto niluluto lulutuin

Word Formation Rules:
Infinitive: Attach the affix -in to the end of the root word.  When adding the affix -in to the root, if the root ends in an o, the o is changed to a uluto > lutuin
             * Following a vowel a or i, the affix becomes -hin. The final -i of the root is usually dropped.   bili > bilhin


Completed: Insert -in- before the first vowel of the root word.  putol >pinutol
                 *For root words that begin with l or r, put ni- in front of the root. luto > niluto


Incompleted: (1) Repeat the first (consonant) and vowel of the root. putol > puputol
                    (2) Insert the -in- before the first vowel of the stem.  puputol > pinuputol
                    *For stem words that begin with l or r, put ni- in front of the stem.


Contemplated: (1) Take the infinitive.  kainin
                      (2) Repeat the first (consonant) and vowel of the stem word.  kakainin

 

 

I- Verbs
Root Infinitive Completed Incompleted Contemplated
bigay ibigay
to give
ibinigay ibinibigay ibibigay
tapon itapon
to throw away
itinapon itinatapon itatapon
sulat isulat
to write something down
isinulat isinusulat isusulat
abot iabot
to hand something
iniabot* iniaabot* iaabot
labas ilabas
to put/take something outside
inilabas* inilalabas* ilalabas

Word Formation Rules:
Infinitive: Put the affix I- before the root.  tapon > itapon


Completed: (1) Take the infinitive.  itapon
                  (2) Insert the affix -in- after the first consonant of the root.  itinapon
                    * For root words that start with a vowel, l or r, change the affix -in- to -ni-.


Incompleted: (1) Take the infinitive.  itapon
                    (2) Repeat the first (consonant) and vowel of the root.  itapon > itatapon
                    (3) Insert the affix -in- after the first consonant of the stem.  itatapon > itinatapon
                    *For stem words that start with a vowel, l or r, change the affix -in- to -ni-.


Contemplated: (1) Take the infinitive.  itapon
                      (2) Repeat the first (consonant) and vowel of the root.  itatapon

 

 

-AN Verbs
Root Infinitive Completed Incompleted Contemplated
bukas buksan
to open
binuksan binubuksan bubuksan
sara sarhan
to close
sinarhan sinasarhan sasarhan
takip takpan
to cover
tinakpan tinatakpan tatakpan
laba labhan
to wash clothes
linabhan/ nilabhan linalabhan/ nilalabhan lalabhan

Word Formation Rules:
Infinitive: Attach the affix -an to the root word.  sara > sarhan

             When attached to a root that ends in a vowel, the affix becomes -han.
             The final vowel of the root is usually dropped.


Completed: (1) Take the infinitive.  sarhan
                  (2) Insert -in- before the first vowel of the stem word.  sinarhan


Incompleted: (1) Take the infinitive.  sarhan
                    (2) Repeat the first (consonant) and vowel of the stem word.  sasarhan
                    (3) Insert the affix -in- before the first vowel of the stem word.  sinasarhan


Contemplated: (1) Take the infinitive.  sarhan
                      (2) Repeat the first (consonant) and vowel of the stem word.  sasarhan

 

 

MA- Verbs
Root Infinitive Completed Incomleted Contemlated
kita makita
to see
nakita nakikita makikita
pansin mapansin
to notice
napansin napapansin mapapansin
dinig marinig
to hear
narinig naririnig maririnig
alam malaman
to learn
nalaman nalalaman malalaman

Word Formation Rules:
Infinitive: Put the affix ma- before the root/stem.  kita > makita


Completed: Take the infinitive, and change the m of the affix ma- to nmakita > nakita


Incompleted: (1) Take the infinitive, and change the m of the affix ma- to nmakita > nakita
                    (2) Repeat the first (consonant) and vowel of the root word. nakikita


Contemplated: (1) Take the infinitive.  makita
                      (2) Repeat the first (consonant) and vowel of the root word.  makikita