Beneficiary-Focus Verbs

This page presents examples of the most common beneficiary-focus verbs in their infinitive and different aspect forms.

IPAG- Verbs
Root Infinitive Completed Incompleted Contemplated
luto ipagluto
to cook

for someone
ipinagluto ipinagluluto ipagluluto
timpla ipagtimpla
to make a drink

for someone
ipinagtimpla ipinagtitimpla ipagtitimpla
handa ipaghanda
to prepare something

for someone
ipinaghanda ipinaghahanda ipaghahanda
hugas ipaghugas
to wash

(
e.g., dishes)
for someone
ipinaghugas ipinaghuhugas ipaghuhugas

Word Formation Rules:
Infinitive: Attach the prefix ipag- to the root word. luto > ipagluto


Completed: (1) Take the infinitive. ipagluto
                  (2) Insert the affix -in- before the first vowel of the stem word.  ipinagluto


Incompleted: (1) Take the infinitive.  ipagluto
                    (2) Repeat the first (consonant) and vowel of the root.  ipagluluto
                    (3) Insert the affix -in- before the first vowel of the stem word. ipagluluto > ipinagluluto


Contemplated: (1) Take the infinitive.  ipagluto
                      (2) Repeat the first (consonant) and vowel of the stem word. ipagluluto

 

 

-AN Verbs
Root Infinitive Completed Incompleted Contemplated
bili bilhan
to buy something for someone
binilhan binibilhan bibilhan
kanta kantahan
to sing for someone
kinantahan kinakantahan kakantahan
luto lutuan
to cook something for someone
linutuan/ nilutuan linulutuan/ nilulutuan lulutuan
timpla timplahan
to prepare a drink for someone
tinimplahan tinitimplahan titimplahan

Word Formation Rules:
Infinitive: Attach the suffix -an to the root word.  luto > lutuan
               Following the vowel a or i, the affix becomes -hankanta > kantahan
               Some root words drop the final vowel.


Completed: (1) Take the infinitive.  kantahan
                  (2) Insert the affix -in- before the first vowel of the stem word. kinantahan


Incompleted: (1) Take the infinitive.  kantahan
                    (2) Repeat the first (cosonant) and vowel of the stem word.  kakantahan
                    (3) Insert the affix -in- before the first vowel of the stem word.  kinakantahan


Contemplated: (1) Take the infinitive.  kantahan
                      (2) Repeat the first (consonant) and vowel of the stem word. kakantahan