Actor Focus Verbs

This page presents examples of the three most common actor-focus verbs in their infinitive and different aspect forms. Using an infinitive form is like shifting your car into neutral. The infinitive form of a verb is put into a timeless (and aspectless) state. It is used to talk about an action in general instead of a specific event. It is used in sentences such as "I like to dance." The verb 'to dance' is an infinitive. 

A brief explanation on how to form the different aspects is provided for each of the tables below.

The first verbs we will look at are the actor focus -UM- verbs that we discussed earlier. Remember how -UM- acts as a code or marker that indicates that the doer of the action is the focus of the sentence? The way -UM- is placed in the verb (or not placed) indicates if the action is completed, incompleted, or contemplated.

-UM- Verbs
Root Infinitive Completed Incompleted Contemplated
takbo tumakbo
to run
tumakbo tumatakbo tatakbo
lakad lumakad
to walk
lumakad lumalakad lalakad
bili bumili
to buy
bumili bumibili bibili
alis umalis
to leave
umalis umaalis aalis
asa umasa
to hope
umasa umaasa aasa

Word formation rules:
Infinitive: Put -um- directly before the first vowel of the root word.

             takbo + -um- = tumakbo

Completed: Put -um- before the first vowel of the root word.
                  takbo + -um- = tumakbo


Incompleted: (1) Repeat the first (consonant) and vowel of the root word.*

           For example:

           The root word is takbo

           Now the first consonant and vowel of takbo is ta. Repeat this first consonant and vowel and place them in front of the root

           takbo + ta = tatakbo
            
                    (2) Put -um- before the first vowel of the stem word.

                        tatakbo + -um- = tumatakbo


Contemplated: Repeat the first (consonant) and vowel of the root word.

                      takbo + repetition of first (C)V = tatakbo

*Note: when repeating the first consonant and vowel of a verb, if the verb starts with a vowel, simply repeat or duplicate the begining vowel, and place it on to the front of the root.

alis + a = aalis

 

 

MAG- Verbs
Root Infinitive Completed Incompleted Contemplated
aral mag-aral
to study
nag-aral nag-aaral mag-aaral
luto magluto
to cook
nagluto nagluluto magluluto
trabaho magtrabaho
to work
nagtrabaho nagtatrabaho magtatrabaho
bakasyon magbakasyon
to be on vacation
nagbakasyon nagbabakasyon magbabakasyon
laro maglaro
to play
naglaro naglalaro maglalaro

Word formation rules:
Infinitive: Put mag- in front of the root. Before a vowel, use a hyphen.  aral > mag-aral


Completed: Take the infinitive, and change m (of the affix mag-) to n.   mag > nag

Incompleted: (1) Take the infinitive, and change m (of the affix mag-) to n.
                    (2) Repeat the first (consonant) and vowel of the root word.  naglaro > naglalaro

Contemplated: Take the infinitive, and repeat the first (consonant) and vowel of the root word. maglaro > maglalaro

 

 

MA- Verbs
Root Infinitive Completed Incompleted Contemplated
tulog matulog
to sleep
natulog natutulog matutulog
ligo maligo
to take a bath/shower
naligo naliligo maliligo
kinig* makinig
to listen
nakinig nakikinig makikinig
nood* manood
to watch
nanood nanonood manonood
awa maawa
to take pity
naawa naaawa maaawa

Word formation rules:
Infinitive: Put ma- in front of the root.  ligo > maligo


Completed: Take the infinitive, and change m (of the affix ma-) to nmaligo > naligo


Incompleted: (1) Take the infinitive, and change m (of the affix ma-) to nmaligo > naligo
                    (2) Repeat the first (consonant) and vowel of the root word.  naligo > naliligo


Contemplated: Take the infinitive, and repeat the first (consonant) and vowel of the root word.  maligo > maliligo