Modal Enclitics

Just as temporal enclitics give some indication about time in a sentence, modal enclitics give some indication of the mood of the speaker or of the way the speaker feels about the sentence. For example, the speaker may be stating something in a 'matter of fact' or factual way such as in the sentence: "I have a cat." Or the speaker may state something as a wish or desire such as in the sentence "I wish I had a cat." A speaker may also state something with surprise or extra emphasis, etc. Modal enclitics help express or convey these different moods.

There are a number of enclitic particles encoding mood. The more common ones are presented here. The use of these particles is largely idiomatic though some generalizations about their usage may be offered. The examples on this page show their general usage and some of the frequently used idiomatic expressions.

NGA LANG PALA NAMAN TALAGA

 

The Particle NGA

bulletThis particle is a way of affirming or giving extra emphasis to a statement. It can emphasize agreement with or confirmation of some statement.
Ana: Ang ganda ng mga bulaklak!
Ben: Oo nga.
Ana: My! The flowers are beautiful.
Ben: Yes, they are.
Ben: Sige na, sumama ka na sa piknik.
Ana: Sige na nga.
Ana: Come on, join us for a picnic.
Ana: Oh, alright.

 

bulletBut NGA can also be used to pose a challenge to a speaker, when the speaker's assertion is somewhat questioned.
Ben: Aakyatin ko ang bundok ng Banahaw.
Ana: Sige nga.
Ben: I'm going to climb Mount Banahaw.
Ana: Let's see you do it.
Ana: Simple lang ang solusyon sa problema mo.
Ben: Ipaliwanag mo nga.
Ana: The solution to your problem is very simple.
Ben: Could you explain that please.

 

bulletIt also emphasizes politeness in making requests. Command forms are softened so that they sound like more of a request or an expression of concern rather than direct orders.
Pakibuksan mo nga ang pinto. Would you please open the door.
Sarhan mo nga ang bintana. Would you close the window.
Matulog ka nga. Why don't you get some sleep.

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The Particle LANG (shortened form of LAMANG)

bulletIt usually means only.
Isa lang ang kotse ko. I only have one car.
Dalawa lang ang kapatid ko. I only have two siblings.

 

bulletBut it may also mean just.
Kararating ko lang. I just arrived.
Maghintay ka lang. Just wait.

 

bulletAnd here are some everyday idioms:
Sandali lang. Just a minute.
Di bale na lang. Nevermind.
Simple lang. Very simple.
Ikaw lang. Only you.
Cool ka lang. Keep cool.

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The Particle PALA

bulletThis enclitic expresses surprise. A speaker would use this to indicate that something has just been learned/known, and the information is surprising or unexpected.
Ikaw pala! Oh, it's you.
Taga-Amerika ka pala! So you're from the US!
Mali pala ang sinabi ko. What I said was wrong after all.
Pupunta ka pala sa Hawaii. So you're going to Hawaii!

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The Particle NAMAN

bulletThis emphasizes politeness in making requests. Command forms are softened so that they sound more like a request or an expression of concern rather than direct orders.
Pakiabot naman ng asin. Would you please pass the salt.
Dalhin mo naman ang bag ko. Could you carry my bag.
Magpahinga ka naman. Why don't you get some rest.

 

bulletIt may also indicate that an assertion is true even though it may not be generally viewed as such.
Mabait naman siya. She's actually nice.
Masipag naman siya. He's actually hard-working.

 

bulletAnd this enclitic may also be used to intensify the degree of a certain quality used to describe someone or something.
Ang bait mo naman. You're too nice.
Ang ganda naman ng bahay ni Fe. Fe's house is really beautiful.

 

bulletWhen the particle occurs with the enclitic NA, it generally means again or once more.
Magsisine ka na naman! You're watching a movie again!
Nandito na naman kami. Here we are again.

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The Particle TALAGA

bulletThis generally means really.
Ben: Nag-aaral na naman si Pedro sa laybrari.
Ana: Talaga?
Ben: Oo. Masipag talaga siya.
Ben: Pedro is studying in the library again.
Ana: Really?
Ben: He is really hard-working.

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