These are sentences that express the existence of something or the state of having something and are marked by the existential particle mayroon. This particle takes the linker suffix -(n)g when it precedes a noun/noun phrase. In this format, it functions like a modifier just like adjectives modify nouns and is usually shortened to may. The existential phrase occupies the predicate position. Here are some examples:
na babae si Rosa.
May kapatid na babae si Rosa.
|Rosa has a sister.|
damit si Tina.
May bagong damit si Tina.
|Tina has a new dress.|
libro ang estudyante.
May dalawang libro ang estudyante.
|The student has two books.|
May tao sa bahay.
|There's someone in the house.|
konsyerto sa plasa mamayang gabi.
May konsyerto sa plasa mamayang gabi.
|There's going to be a concert at the plaza later tonight.|
May lihim ako.
|I have a secret.|
May trabaho siya.
|He/She has a job.|
When mayroon is followed by a pronoun, it functions like the phrase "to have something." The linker (-ng) is attached to end of the pronoun (e.g. ako + ng = akong). The pronoun comes directly after mayroon.
When the shortened form may is used, the pronoun comes after the noun or noun phrase.
The negative equivalent of a mayroon/may sentence is marked by the particle wala which means "there is not (something)"; "the absence of (something)"; or "not having (something)." Here are the corresponding negative equivalents of the preceding examples:
|Walang kapatid na babae si Rosa.||Rosa does not have a sister.|
|Walang bagong damit si Tina.||Tina does not have a new dress.|
|Walang libro ang estudyante.||The student does not have a book.|
|Walang tao sa bahay.||There is no one in the house.|
|Walang konsyerto sa plasa mamayang gabi.||There is no concert at the plaza tonight.|
|Wala akong lihim.||I don't have a secret.|
|Wala siyang trabaho.||He/She doesn't have a job.|
Notice again that when a personal pronoun occurs with wala, it comes after the negator wala, and the linker is attached to it.