SA-Pronouns

SA-pronouns are used to substitute for SA- and KAY/KINA-phrases. SA pronouns are used to indicate direction or location and they are not in focus. This set has the same functions as the SA-phrases.

The Personal Pronouns

These are used to replace noun phrases that refer to person(s). There is a current trend though, especially among young Tagalog speakers in the Philippines, of using these pronouns to refer to other animate and inanimate nouns. But this is a colloquial usage, and a Tagalog learner would be advised to try to limit the use of these pronouns to refer only to people.

SA Personal Pronouns

Person/Number Singular Plural
1st Person AKIN
(me/my )
AMIN
(us/our)
ATIN
(us/our)
2nd Person IYO
(you/your)
INYO
(you/your)
3rd Person KANYA
(him/his/her)
KANILA
(them/their)


The major functions of this pronoun set are discussed in this section.

1. SA-pronouns indicate possession. The possessor comes before the noun possessed. Structurally, the possessor-pronoun is used as a modifier of the noun possessed. Thus,  the linker NA (-ng/na) is required between the pronoun and the noun.
Here are some examples:

aking kapatid my brother
kanyang kotse her car
aming hardin our garden
kanilang bahay their house


2. SA-pronouns express location. Here are some examples:

Nasa akin ang libro mo. Your book is with me.
Nasa kanya ang gamit mo. Your stuff is with him.
May salu-salo sa amin. There's a get-together at our place.
Nakatira ako sa kanila. I am staying at their place.


3. SA-pronouns express direction. Any prepositional phrase  that indicates some kind of movement toward or away from someone is expressed using one of these markers. Here are some examples:

Dadalaw ako sa iyo bukas. I am going to visit you tomorrow.
Ibinigay ni Ana ang susi sa kanya. Ana gave the key to him.
Umalis siya sa kanila. He left (from) their place.
Itinago ni Luz ang libro (mula) sa atin. Luz hid the book from us.


4. SA-pronouns express the beneficiary of an action. Just like SA and KAY/KINA-phrases, these forms are almost equal to English for-phrases expressing the idea of an action done for someone. The marker is always preceded by the word para. Here are some examples:

Gumawa ako ng cake para sa atin. I baked a cake for us.
Binili ko ang bulaklak para sa iyo. I bought the flowers for you.
Nagluto ako ng adobo para sa kanila. I cooked adobo for them.
Itinago ko ang mga sulat para sa inyo. I kept the letters for you (pl.).


The Demonstrative Pronouns

They are used to replace nouns or noun phrases that refer to non-human subjects. Although these forms are usually translated as this/these and that/those in English, they are also equivalent to the pronoun set it/they.

These SA-forms are distinguished from each other on the basis of the relative distance of their referent from the speaker, the hearer, or from both speaker and hearer. Here is a chart of the SA-demonstratives:

Relative Distance from Speaker/Hearer SA-Demonstrative Pronouns English Equivalent
near the speaker dito/rito here
near the hearer diyan/riyan there
far from both doon/roon over there


The major functions of this pronoun set are discussed in this section.

1. SA-pronouns indicate location. Most prepositional phrases in English indicating some location are expressed in Tagalog as SA-phrases. Here are some examples:

May parti doon sa Sabado. There's going to be a party there on Saturday.
Nakatira ako dito. I live here.
Nag-aaral  diyan si Maya Maya studies there.
Nagluluto ang nanay doon. Mom is cooking there.


2. SA-pronouns indicate direction. Prepositional phrases in English indicating some direction towards or away from a place or some other noun are also generally expressed as SA-phrases in Tagalog. Here are examples:

Pumunta sila dito noong bakasyon. They came here last vacation.
Umalis siya doon nang maaga. He left (from) there early.
Binili niya ang bulaklak diyan. He bought the flowers from there.
Kinuha niya ang libro dito. He got the book (from here).


3. SA-pronouns indicate the beneficiary of an action. It is equivalent to the English for-phrase in the context of doing something for something. It comes after the word para (for) in this context. Here are some examples:

Gumawa siya ng eksamen para dito. She made an exam for this.
Naghanda kami ng sorpresa para doon. We prepared a surprise for that.
Bumili si Ana ng regalo para diyan. Ana bought a gift for that.
Nagdala si Butch ng laruan para dito. Butch brought a toy for this.