NG-pronouns are used to replace NG- or SI/SINA- words or phrases. NG-pronouns are not in focus. This set has the same functions as the NG- words or phrases.

The Personal Pronouns

These are used to replace noun phrases that refer to a person or people. There is a current trend though, especially among young Tagalog speakers in the Philippines, of using these pronouns to refer to other animate and inanimate nouns. But this is a colloquial usage, and a Tagalog learner would be advised to try to limit the use of these pronouns to refer only to people.

NG Personal Pronouns

Person/Number Singular Plural
1st Person KO
(my/of me)
(our/of us-exclusive)
(our/of us-inclusive)
2nd Person MO
(your/of you)
(your/of you)
3rd Person NIYA
(his/her/of him/of her)
(their/of them)

The Demonstrative Pronouns

They are used to replace unfocused nouns or noun phrases that refer to non-humans. Although these forms are usually translated as this/these and that/those in English, they are also equivalent to the pronoun set it/they.

These NG-forms are distinguished from each other on the basis of the relative distance of their referent from the speaker, the hearer, or from both speaker and hearer. Here is a chart of the NG-demonstratives:

Relative Distance from Speaker/Hearer NG-Demonstrative Pronouns English Equivalent
near the speaker nito of this
near the hearer niyan of that
far from both niyon of that (over there)

The major functions of this pronoun set are discussed in this section.

1. NG-pronouns indicate possession. The pronoun comes after the noun possessed. Here are some examples:

Kotse ko ito.
ang kotse ko.
This is my car.
This is the car of mine.
Bahay namin iyan.
ang bahay namin.
That is our house.
That is the house of ours.
Aso nila iyon.
ang aso nila.
That (over there) is their dog.
That (over there) is the dog of theirs.

2. NG-pronouns substitute for unfocussed agent/actor NG-phrases. Here are some examples:

Binili nila ang kotse. The car was bought by them.
Nilinis namin ang bahay kahapon. The house was cleaned by us yesterday.
Binigyan niya ng kendi ang bata. The kid was given a candy by him.
Binili ko ang damit para kay Rosa. The dress was bought by me for Rosa.

3. NG-pronouns substitute for direct object NG-phrases that are not focused. The direct objects have been replaced with NG-pronouns:

Bumili sila nito. They bought this.
Naglinis kami niyon. We cleaned that.
Nagbigay siya nito sa bata. He gave this to the kid.
Bumili ako niyan para kay Rosa. I bought that for Rosa.