NG-pronouns are used to replace NG- or SI/SINA- words or phrases. NG-pronouns are not in focus. This set has the same functions as the NG- words or phrases.
The Personal Pronouns
These are used to replace noun phrases that refer to a person or people. There is a current trend though, especially among young Tagalog speakers in the Philippines, of using these pronouns to refer to other animate and inanimate nouns. But this is a colloquial usage, and a Tagalog learner would be advised to try to limit the use of these pronouns to refer only to people.
NG Personal Pronouns
(his/her/of him/of her)
The Demonstrative Pronouns
They are used to replace unfocused nouns or noun phrases that refer to non-humans. Although these forms are usually translated as this/these and that/those in English, they are also equivalent to the pronoun set it/they.
These NG-forms are distinguished from each other on the basis of the relative distance of their referent from the speaker, the hearer, or from both speaker and hearer. Here is a chart of the NG-demonstratives:
|Relative Distance from Speaker/Hearer||NG-Demonstrative Pronouns||English Equivalent|
|near the speaker||nito||of this|
|near the hearer||niyan||of that|
|far from both||niyon||of that (over there)|
The major functions of this pronoun set are discussed in this section.
1. NG-pronouns indicate possession. The pronoun comes after the noun possessed. Here are some examples:
|Kotse ko ito.
Ito ang kotse ko.
This is the car of mine.
|Bahay namin iyan.
Iyan ang bahay namin.
That is the house of ours.
|Aso nila iyon.
Iyon ang aso nila.
(over there) is their dog.
That (over there) is the dog of theirs.
2. NG-pronouns substitute for unfocussed agent/actor NG-phrases. Here are some examples:
|Binili nila ang kotse.||The car was bought by them.|
|Nilinis namin ang bahay kahapon.||The house was cleaned by us yesterday.|
|Binigyan niya ng kendi ang bata.||The kid was given a candy by him.|
|Binili ko ang damit para kay Rosa.||The dress was bought by me for Rosa.|
3. NG-pronouns substitute for direct object NG-phrases that are not focused. The direct objects have been replaced with NG-pronouns:
|Bumili sila nito.||They bought this.|
|Naglinis kami niyon.||We cleaned that.|
|Nagbigay siya nito sa bata.||He gave this to the kid.|
|Bumili ako niyan para kay Rosa.||I bought that for Rosa.|