The pronouns in this section are pronouns that are in focus. We call this set of pronouns ANG pronouns. ANG pronouns are used to replace ANG-words or SI/SINA-words.
The Personal Pronouns
These are used to replace noun phrases that refer to person(s). There is a current trend though, especially among young Tagalog-speakers in the Philippines, of using these pronouns to refer to other animate and inanimate nouns. But this is a colloquial usage, and a Tagalog learner would be advised to try to limit the use of these pronouns to refer only to people.
First person pronouns refer to the person who is doing the speaking (e.g. I, we). When there is only one person referred to, the singular form of the pronoun is used (e.g. I). When more than one person is refferred to the plural form is used (e.g. we).
Second person pronouns refer to the person being spoken to (e.g. you).
Third person pronouns refer to someone who is neither the speaker, nor the listener, but instead third person pronouns refer to someone who is outside the conversation (e.g. him, they).
ANG Personal Pronouns
( I )
Let's take a look at how these pronouns work. Below is a sample sentence. The words in this sentence are all in English except for the focused part of the sentence:
Si Jose went to the park. Then Si Jose listened to music. Then Si Jose climbed a tree.
Now, say that you wrote this sentence, and you feel like you have used Si Jose too much. You feel it is becoming too repetitive. So you would like to replace Si Jose with a pronoun. First, because Jose is in focus (you know this because of the SI), you need to select a pronoun that is a pronoun that is in focus (ANG pronoun). All the pronouns in the chart above are focused pronouns. Jose is third person singular, so you would use SIYA. Now you substitute SIYA for Si Jose:
Si Jose went to the park. Then siya (he) listened to music. Then siya (he) climbed a tree.
*IKAW and KA are both equivalent to the singular YOU. IKAW is used when it is the first word of the sentence, and KA in all other positions.
Here is a dialog where the different you-singular forms (IKAW and KA) are used. Take note of the position of the two forms in sentences.
|Jose: Minda, kumusta ka?
Minda: Mabuti. Ikaw?
Jose: Mabuti rin. Saan ka pupunta sa Sabado?
Minda: Pupunta ako sa Laguna.
Jose: Talaga? Sino ang kasama mo?
Jose: Aba! Siyempre.
Minda, how are you?
Fine. And you?
Minda: I'm going to Laguna.
Jose: Really? Who are you going with?
Minda: I'm going with Fe, George and Dan. What about you, would you like to come?
Jose: Oh, sure!
There are exceptions to the rule about KA and IKAW, though. Certain expressions have the pronoun IKAW within the sentence and not in the initial position. Here are some of the most common ones:
ako ikaw. . . .
Kung ikaw ang tatanungin. . . .
|If I were you. . .
I you were to be asked. . . .
Anything for you!
we-exclusive refers to the speaker and his or her group or people associated with
her/him, but it excludes the hearer or the person being spoken to.
***TAYO or we-inclusive refers to both the speaker and the hearer and possibly other person(s) associated with them in the context of the sentence or discourse.
This can be confusing for people who do not make the distinction between the WE that includes both speaker and hearer and the WE that excludes the hearer.
Here are some examples of KAMI and TAYO:
Carla, kumusta ang bakasyon mo?
Carla: Naku ang saya!
Ana: Saan ka pumunta?
Carla: Pumunta ako sa Bikol. kasama ang pamilya ko. Bumisita kami sa aking lola doon. Nagkita-kita kami ng aking mga pinsan at pumunta kami sa beach. Umakyat din kami sa bundok at natulog kami doon ng isang gabi. Masaya talaga ang bakasyon namin.
Ana: Mabuti ka pa at nakapagpahinga ng husto noong bakasyon. Sana may mga kamag-anak din ako sa probinsiya para mabisita ko kapag bakasyon.
Carla: Pista sa Bulakan sa
Ana: Aba, oo! Saan tayo tutuloy doon?
Ana: Naku, sana Byernes na ngayon!
|Ana: Carla, how was your
Carla: Oh, it was fun!
Ana: Where did you go?
Carla: I went to Bikol (together) with my family. We visited with out grandmother there. We got together with my cousins, and we went to the beach. We also climbed up the mountain, and we stayed (there) overnight. Our vacation was really fun!
Ana: Good for you that you were able to really relax during your vacation. I wish I also had relatives in the province, so I could visit with them during vacations.
Carla:There's going to be the town fiesta of
Bulakan this Saturday, and I'm planning to go there with my sisters. Would you like to
Ana: Oh yes! Where are we going to stay there?
Carla: My Aunt Norma is inviting people to a gathering/party at her house. We can stay there. I'm sure there's going to be lots of food because she's expecting a lot of guests. We will watch the parade in the morning, and in the evening, we will go to the dance. Maybe there will be some celebrities there.
The Demonstrative Pronouns
Demonstrative Pronouns are used to replace nouns or noun phrases that refer to non-humans. These pronouns are always in focus. Although these forms are usually translated as this/these and that/those in English, they are also equivalent to the pronoun set it/they.
These ANG-forms are distinguished from each other on the basis of the relative distance of their referent from the speaker, the hearer, or from both speaker and hearer. Here is a chart of the ANG-demonstratives:
|Relative Distance from Speaker/Hearer||ANG-Demonstrative Pronouns||English Equivalent|
|near the speaker||ito||this|
|near the hearer||iyan||that|
|far from both||iyon||that (over there)|
The demonstrative pronouns have two major functions.
1. They substitute for ANG-phrases. Here are some examples:
|Nalaglag ang baso.
|May ilaw ang silid.
May ilaw iyon.
room has light.
It has light.
|Nasa kusina ang aso.
Nasa kusina iyon.
dog is in the kitchen.
It is in the kitchen.
A plural noun, however, does not drop the markers that come before it. Instead, only the noun (+ possessive or some modifier following it, if any) is replaced by the pronoun. Here are some examples:
|Nalanta ang mga bulaklak.
Nalanta ang mga ito.
|Nawala ang mga libro ko.
Nawala ang mga iyon.
books were lost.
They were lost.
|Binili niya ang mga libro para sa klase.
Binili niya ang mga iyon.
books for the class were bought by her.
They were bought by her.
2. They are used as pointers to bring attention to a referent noun. In this context, the pronoun may refer to either human or non-human noun. Because it is used for emphasis, it is usually placed at the beginning of the sentence. Here are some examples:
|Ito si Noel.||This is Noel.|
|Iyan ang upuan ko.||That is my seat.|
|Iyon ang tatay niya.||That is his dad.|
|Ito ang mga halaman ko.||These are my plants.|
|Iyan ang mga gamit niya.||Those are his stuff.|
|Iyon ang mga kaibigan ko.||Those are my friends.|