Language Activities
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Primary Business

Primary Business Vocabulary
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Association Game
Translation Flip Card
Contextual Clues

Cultural Scenarios


Other Language  and Cultural Notes

Business Related Modules

Philippine Economics
Philippine Government

Business Lessons










Sinaunang Pangangalakal
ni M. Evangelista


  • active partner- kasosyo
  • association- kapisanan
  • business person- negosyante
  • business related- may kaugnay sa pangangalakal
  • charity - pagmamalasakit
  • commercial law - batas pangkomersyal 
  • company - kumpanya
  • consortium - pangkalahatang organisasyon
  • cooperative - kooperatiba
  • corporation - korporasyon
  • entrepreneur - isang taong magaling sa bisnis
  • family - pamilya
  • finance company - kumpanya pinansyal
  • foundation - pundasyon
  • general partner - pangkalahatang kasama magkalahatang kasama
  • general partnership - negosyong pagmamay-ari ng dalawang negosyante
  • holdings - pinanghahawakang ari-arian
  • institution - institusyon
  • investor - taong naglaan ng pera para sa isang bisnis
  • joint venture - negosyong pinagsasamahan ng dalawa o higit pang kompanya
  • leader - pinuno
  • limited liability corporation - limited liability corporation
  • limited partnership - negosong pagmamay-ari ng hindi hihigit sa tatlong negosyante
  • major - pangunahin
  • manager - tagapangasiwa
  • managing partner - kasosyong nangangasiwa
  • mutual insurance company - kompanyang may kinalaman sa mutual insurance
  • non-profit - hindi pinagkakakitaan
  • non-taxable - hindi binubuwisan
  • parent company - kompanyang pinagmulan
  • partner - kasosyo
  • partnership limited by shares - negosyong may takdang pagmamay-ari ng shares
  • private - pribado
  • real estate company - kumpanyang may kinalaman sa lupain
  • savings and loan institution - institusyong patungkol sa pag-iimpok at pagpapautang
  • small - maliit
  • sole propietorship - negosyong pagmamay-ari ng isang negosyante lamang
  • state corporation - kompanyang may kinalaman sa estado
  • state owned - pagmamay-ari ng estado
  • subsidiary - sangay
  • trading company - kompanyang may kinalaman sa palit-kalakalan

Cultural Note

Business Etiquette:

Start out by addressing a new business acquaintance by his or her family name. "Mister" is obviously proper for men, while many married Filipinas prefer "Mrs."; use "Ms." sparingly, or at least until her preference is clear. Filipinos are status conscious, so be quick to use formal titles: Doctor Aquino, Attorney Rodriguez, Secretary de Ocampo. Avoid using someone's first name until they've known you for a while, or until they ask you to be more informal.

Many Filipinos have multiple names: Enrique Ramon, Juan Jesus, Maria Teresita. Always ask what they prefer to be called, then make a note regarding both formal names and nicknames (with proper spelling). Nicknames, some of them seemingly flippant, are common: Johnny boy, Peachy, Babes, Junior, Booboy. In written form, the nickname is often enclosed in quotations as a middle name: Antonio "Tony boy" Cojuangco, Ferdinand "Bong-Bong" Marcos.

The rules on handshakes are about the same as in the West, although Filipinos may use a little more contact (a pat on the side of the arm as gesture of hospitality or friendship). If there is a clear status differential, or you are meeting a senior executive, it may be best to let him/her offer the handshake first.

Filipinos have fascinating nonverbal language, much of it involving facial expressions. Lifting the eyebrows without smiling means no -- but lifting the eyebrows while smiling is used to greet a friend. Filipinos often point by pursing their lips. Pointing your finger is a definite no-no, and you should avoid too-direct eye contact.

Source:  Pearl of the Orient Seas, 1999, Clarence Henderson
Henderson Consulting International, Manila, Philippines