Notes

    1. Realizing the fact that the term 'papheni,' means customs and it does not include beliefs, proverbs and sayings, songs and rhymes, and games, Kongdeuane Nettavongs suggested that the Thai term be used to cover more materials in the course. From electronic mail communication on 10 May 2001 with Kongdeuane Nettavongs, director of the Lao National Library in Vientiane, in response to my inquiry concerning an official Lao term for the word, "folklore."

    2. Art Crisfield is author of a definitive collection on the teaching of Lao language.  Presently, he works with the non-government organization, "The Consortium" in educating Lao youth (take from Art's email explaining about his work later.)  From electronic mail communication on 10 May 2001 in response to my inquiry concerning an official Lao term for the word, "folklore."

    3.  Kingkaew Attathakora, The Folk Religion of Ban Nai, A Hamlet in Central Thailand, Bangkok:   Khurusapha Press, 1968.

    4. Kulab Mullikamat, Khatichaoban (Folklore), Bangkok: Chaunphim, 1966.

     5.  Kanyarat Wetchasaat, "Wong kan katichon witthaya : phu buk boek lae phon ngan (Folklore Circle: the Pioneer and Her Works)" in khatichon kap khon Thai-Tai: ruam botkhwam thang dan khatichonwitthaya nai boribot thang sangkhom (Folklore and Thai-Tai People: anthology of articles on folklore and its social context) Siraphon Thitathan Na Thalang, Sukanya Phattharachai, Bangkok: Khrongkan Tamra Khana Aksonrasat, Chulalongkonmahawitthayalai, 1999, pp. 6-7.

    6.  Saowalak Anantasan, "Khammai lae khobkhai khong khatichaoban- khatichon-khatichonwitthaya," ibid, p. 23.

    7.  Maha Sila Viravongs,  phong sawadan lao (Lao Historical Chranicles), Vientiane: Ministry of Education, 1953.

________. nithan nang tantrai (Tales by Lady Tantrai), Vientiane: Krom Wannakhadee, Ministry of Education, 1957.

________.  Heet Sip Song (Fourteen Rules for Rulers and Commoners), Vientiane: Krom Wannakhadee, Ministry of Education, 1974.

    8.  ________. Thao Hung Thao Cheuang Epic: Adaptation into Modern Prose (sic. Verse), adapted and annotated by Doungdeuane (Viravongs) Bounyavong and others, Vientiane: The National Library of Laos, 2000).

    9.    Pho Phouangsaba  was deputy of Sieng Khaen Lao Magazine and member of Lao writer association . Somsy Desakhamphou was former vice minister of Ministry of Information and Culture (MIC).  He is now retied but continues to be an advisor for MIC.  This year the National Committee ASEAN Award nominated him to be a candidate of the SeaWrite Award.  Now he is retired but continues to write.  Humphanh Latanavong, now he is Director of  Reseach on Culture Department,  MIC.    Apart from those mentioned,  a few more writers are still active in their works on Lao folklore.  Lungaloune  Hounaloune Denvilay, pseudonym for Othong Insou, is now deputy director of Vannasin Magazine and editor of many children picture books. Amphone Khanthavilay  is now working at theChildren's Home for Education and Culture  Ministry of information and Culture. She is writer.    Samlid Buasisawat is retired and works at home  He is an advisor of Palm leaf Manuscript Preservation Project .  Phoumi Vongvichit was former president of Laos, former minister of the Ministry of Education and writer.  The above information is kindly provided by Kongdeuane Nettavongs.

    10.  Siraphon Thitathan Na Thalang, "Tamnan sang lok khong chon chat tai : tao yang kan suksa watthanatham cak tamnan (Tai Creation Myth: an Example of Cultural Study from Legends)" in khatichon kap khon Thai-Tai: ruam botkhwam thang dan khatichonwitthaya nai boribot thang sangkhom (Folklore and Thai-Tai People: anthology of articles on folklore and its social context) Siraphon Thitathan Na Thalang, Sukanya Phattharachai, Bangkok: Khrongkan Tamra Khana Aksonrasat, Chulalongkonmahawitthayalai, 1999, pp. 220-224.

    11. Ibid, pp. 225-247.

    12. Ibid, pp. 248-257.

    13. Pranee Wongthet, Nithan chadok kab lokkathat khong lao phuan (The Jataka Tales and the Lao Phuan's Worldview" in Phuen thin phuen than, a special edition of Sinlapawatthanatham Magazine, edited by Wannee Wibunsawat Anderson, Bangkok: Ruankaew kan phim, 1988, pp. 132-143.

    14. Sisak Wanliphodom, "The Lao of Thailand: Laotian Settlements in Thailand" Aeng arayatham Isan (A Northeastern Site of Civilization), Bangkok: Phikkhanet Printing Center, Ltd., 1990, pp. 278-287.

    15. Sujit Wongthet,  Thao Hung Khun Cheung (King Hung Lord Cheung), Bangkok: Phikkhanet Printing Center, Ltd., 1995. 

    16. Thammawat, Jaruwan,  Lae lod phongsawadan Lao (Glimpses at the Lao Historical Chronicles), The Research Institute of Northeast Thai Art and Culture: Mahasarakham University, nd.  

________. Wannakam thongthin: korani isan lan chang (Folk Literature: a Case Study of Isan and Lan Chang (Laos), Mahasarakham: Mahasarakham University, nd.

    17. Compton, Carol,  Courting Poetry in Laos: A Textual and Linguistics Analysis DeKalb, IL: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Northern Illinois University in 1979. 

    18. Koret, Peter,   "Laos" in Traveller's Literary Companion to South-east Asia, edited by Alastair Dingwall, Brighton, UK: Print Publishing, 1994, pp. 120-153. 

    In 1999, Peter Koret wrote another article on Lao Literature entitled "Books of Search: the Invention of Traditional Lao Literature as a Subject of Study" in Laos Culture and Society, edited by Grant Evans, Chiangmai: Silkworm Books, 1999, pp. 226-257.  Koret presents various interesting topics relating to Laos such as traditional Lao literature and its role in Lao society, printing technology and its effect on Tradisitonal Lao literature, life and works of Maha Sila Viravongs.

   19. Sahai, Sachchidanand, Ramayana in Laos : a study in the Gvay dvů_rahbi, foreword by Suniti Kumar Chatterji. Delhi : B. R. Pub. Corp. ; New Delhi : distributed by D. K. Publishers' Distributors, 1976.  

________.  The Krsna saga in Laos : a study in the B_rah Ku’td B_rah Ban : or, the story of Banasura,  Delhi : B.R. Pub. Corp. ; New Delhi : distributed by D.K. Publishers' Distributors, 1978.   

   20. Brunvand, Jan Harold,  The Study of American Folklore, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, 1978, p. 1.

   21. Eugenio, Damiana L.,  Philippine Folk Literature: An Anthology, Diliman, Quezon City: The U.P. Folklorists, Inc., 1982, p.1.

   22. Jaruwan Thammawat,  p. 37.   

   23. Brunvand,   p. 99.

   24. The Lao National Library, the Ministry of Education, Phya Khankhaak,  Vientiane: The Lao National Library, the Ministry of Education, 1970.

   25. Maha Sila Viravongs, Phuen Khun Boromrajathirat sabab doem (The Myth of Lord Boromrajathirat, the old version), Vientiane: the Ministry of Education, 1967.

        The Literature Department, Ministry of Education, Phuen Khun Boromrajathirat sabab buhan tae (The Myth of Lord Boromrajathirat, the truly ancient version), Vientiane: The Literature Department, Ministry of Education, 1967.

   26. Jaruwan Thammawat,  p. 72-3, nd.

   27. In Eugenio's collection, folk epics have been called heroic narratives.  Eugenio cited E. A. Manuel from "A Survey of Philippine Folk Epics, " Asian Folklore Studies, XXII (1963), 3 that Manuel called "heroic narratives" "folk epics or ethnoepics," with specific common characteristics: a) narratives of sustained length, b) based on oral tradition, c) revolving around supernatural events or heroic deeds, d) in the form of verse, e) which is either chanted or sung, f) with a certain seriousness of purpose, embodying or validating the beliefs, customs, ideals, or life-values of the people.  Thus, I adopted the term "folk epics" for this collection.

    28.  Maha Sila Viravongs, Thao Hung Thao Cheuang Epic: Adaptation into Modern Prose (sic. Verse), adapted and annotated by Doungdeuane (Viravongs) Bounyavong and others, Vientiane: The National Library of Laos, 2000).

   29. Phra Ariyanuwat Khemajari, Phadaeng Nang Ai (King Phadaeng and Princess Aikham), Mahasarakham: Srinakharinwirot University, 1981.

   30. Koret,   pp. 129-131.

   31. Margaret Read MacDonald and Wajuppa Tossa, Folktales and Storytelling, Mahasarakham: Aphichat Kanphim, 1997, p. 16.

   32. Sommon Phunsawat, Tamla ya phuen muang (Folk Medicine), Vientiane: Long phim haeng rat (The Lao Government Printing Press), 1986 and 1990.

   33. Samlid Buasisawat, kotmai buhan soi sai kham (ancient law called soi sai kham), Vientiane: Long phim suksa (Ministry of Education Printing Press), 1992.  This version could be found in the Lao National Library.

   34. Jaruwan Thammawat, p. 36.  However, these volumes are not listed in the most recent bibliographies published by the Lao National Library 1975-1995.

   35. Maha Sila Viravongs, tamnan phrabang (The Legend of Phrabang Buddha Image), Vientiane: Ministry of Education, 1967.

   36. Buaphan Thammavong, prawatsat lao buhan (Ancient Lao History), Vientiane: Mahawitthayalaisangkhu (The National Teachers' College), 1990.  

   37. Sai-u-koed, Sikhotabong, 1989.  Listed without publisher.

   38. Duangkhai Luangphasi, Sikhottabong, Vientiane: Longphim haeng lat (The State Printing Press), 1990.

   39. Pho. Phuangsaba, Yaa son laan (Grandma Teaches Grandchildren), Vientiane: The State Printing Press), 2000.  

   40. Jaruwan Thammawat, p. 120.

   41. Brunvand, p. 63.  

   42. Phra Inta Kaweewong is an abbot of Wat Sa-ahd-sombun in Roi-et province in northeast Thailand.   He has been compiling many collections of Isan/Lao narratives.  He is also a poet specialized in all forms of Lao folk poetry.

    1. From electronic mail communication on 10 May 2001 with Kongdeuane Nettavongs, director of the Lao National Library in Vientiane, in response to my inquiry concerning an official Lao term for the word, "folklore."

    2. Art Crisfield is author of a definitive collection on the teaching of Lao language.  Presently, he works with the non-government organization, "The Consortium" in educating Lao youth (take from Art's email explaining about his work later.)  From electronic mail communication on 10 May 2001 in response to my inquiry concerning an official Lao term for the word, "folklore."

    3.  Kingkaew Attathakora, The Folk Religion of Ban Nai, A Hamlet in Central Thailand, Bangkok:   Khurusapha Press, 1968.

    4. Kulab Mullikamat, Khatichaoban (Folklore), Bangkok: Chaunphim, 1966.

     5.  Kanyarat Wetchasaat, "Wong kan katichon witthaya : phu buk boek lae phon ngan (Folklore Circle: the Pioneer and Her Works)" in khatichon kap khon Thai-Tai: ruam botkhwam thang dan khatichonwitthaya nai boribot thang sangkhom (Folklore and Thai-Tai People: anthology of articles on folklore and its social context) Siraphon Thitathan Na Thalang, Sukanya Phattharachai, Bangkok: Khrongkan Tamra Khana Aksonrasat, Chulalongkonmahawitthayalai, 1999, pp. 6-7.

    6.  Saowalak Anantasan, "Khammai lae khobkhai khong khatichaoban- khatichon-khatichonwitthaya," ibid, p. 23.

    7.  Maha Sila Viravongs,  phong sawadan lao (Lao Historical Chranicles), Vientiane: Ministry of Education, 1953.

________. nithan nang tantrai (Tales by Lady Tantrai), Vientiane: Krom Wannakhadee, Ministry of Education, 1957.

________.  Heet Sip Song (Fourteen Rules for Rulers and Commoners), Vientiane: Krom Wannakhadee, Ministry of Education, 1974.

    8.  ________. Thao Hung Thao Cheuang Epic: Adaptation into Modern Prose (sic. Verse), adapted and annotated by Doungdeuane (Viravongs) Bounyavong and others, Vientiane: The National Library of Laos, 2000).

    9.    Pho Phouangsaba  was deputy of Sieng Khaen Lao Magazine and member of Lao writer association . Somsy Desakhamphou was former vice minister of Ministry of Information and Culture (MIC).  He is now retied but continues to be an advisor for MIC.  This year the National Committee ASEAN Award nominated him to be a candidate of the SeaWrite Award.  Now he is retired but continues to write.  Humphanh Latanavong, now he is Director of  Reseach on Culture Department,  MIC.    Apart from those mentioned,  a few more writers are still active in their works on Lao folklore.  Lungaloune  Hounaloune Denvilay, pseudonym for Othong Insou, is now deputy director of Vannasin Magazine and editor of many children picture books. Amphone Khanthavilay  is now working at theChildren's Home for Education and Culture  Ministry of information and Culture. She is writer.    Samlid Buasisawat is retired and works at home  He is an advisor of Palm leaf Manuscript Preservation Project .  Phoumi Vongvichit was former president of Laos, former minister of the Ministry of Education and writer.  The above information is kindly provided by Kongdeuane Nettavongs.

    10.  Siraphon Thitathan Na Thalang, "Tamnan sang lok khong chon chat tai : tao yang kan suksa watthanatham cak tamnan (Tai Creation Myth: an Example of Cultural Study from Legends)" in khatichon kap khon Thai-Tai: ruam botkhwam thang dan khatichonwitthaya nai boribot thang sangkhom (Folklore and Thai-Tai People: anthology of articles on folklore and its social context) Siraphon Thitathan Na Thalang, Sukanya Phattharachai, Bangkok: Khrongkan Tamra Khana Aksonrasat, Chulalongkonmahawitthayalai, 1999, pp. 220-224.

    11. Ibid, pp. 225-247.

    12. Ibid, pp. 248-257.

    13. Pranee Wongthet, Nithan chadok kab lokkathat khong lao phuan (The Jataka Tales and the Lao Phuan's Worldview" in Phuen thin phuen than, a special edition of Sinlapawatthanatham Magazine, edited by Wannee Wibunsawat Anderson, Bangkok: Ruankaew kan phim, 1988, pp. 132-143.

    14. Sisak Wanliphodom, "The Lao of Thailand: Laotian Settlements in Thailand" Aeng arayatham Isan (A Northeastern Site of Civilization), Bangkok: Phikkhanet Printing Center, Ltd., 1990, pp. 278-287.

    15. Sujit Wongthet,  Thao Hung Khun Cheung (King Hung Lord Cheung), Bangkok: Phikkhanet Printing Center, Ltd., 1995. 

    16. Thammawat, Jaruwan,  Lae lod phongsawadan Lao (Glimpses at the Lao Historical Chronicles), The Research Institute of Northeast Thai Art and Culture: Mahasarakham University, nd.  

________. Wannakam thongthin: korani isan lan chang (Folk Literature: a Case Study of Isan and Lan Chang (Laos), Mahasarakham: Mahasarakham University, nd.

    17. Compton, Carol,  Courting Poetry in Laos: A Textual and Linguistics Analysis DeKalb, IL: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Northern Illinois University in 1979. 

    18. Koret, Peter,   "Laos" in Traveller's Literary Companion to South-east Asia, edited by Alastair Dingwall, Brighton, UK: Print Publishing, 1994, pp. 120-153. 

    In 1999, Peter Koret wrote another article on Lao Literature entitled "Books of Search: the Invention of Traditional Lao Literature as a Subject of Study" in Laos Culture and Society, edited by Grant Evans, Chiangmai: Silkworm Books, 1999, pp. 226-257.  Koret presents various interesting topics relating to Laos such as traditional Lao literature and its role in Lao society, printing technology and its effect on Tradisitonal Lao literature, life and works of Maha Sila Viravongs.

   19. Sahai, Sachchidanand, Ramayana in Laos : a study in the Gvay dvů_rahbi, foreword by Suniti Kumar Chatterji. Delhi : B. R. Pub. Corp. ; New Delhi : distributed by D. K. Publishers' Distributors, 1976.  

________.  The Krsna saga in Laos : a study in the B_rah Ku’td B_rah Ban : or, the story of Banasura,  Delhi : B.R. Pub. Corp. ; New Delhi : distributed by D.K. Publishers' Distributors, 1978.   

   20. Brunvand, Jan Harold,  The Study of American Folklore, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, 1978, p. 1.

   21. Eugenio, Damiana L.,  Philippine Folk Literature: An Anthology, Diliman, Quezon City: The U.P. Folklorists, Inc., 1982, p.1.

   22. Jaruwan Thammawat,  p. 37.   

   23. Brunvand,   p. 99.

   24. The Lao National Library, the Ministry of Education, Phya Khankhaak,  Vientiane: The Lao National Library, the Ministry of Education, 1970.

   25. Maha Sila Viravongs, Phuen Khun Boromrajathirat sabab doem (The Myth of Lord Boromrajathirat, the old version), Vientiane: the Ministry of Education, 1967.

        The Literature Department, Ministry of Education, Phuen Khun Boromrajathirat sabab buhan tae (The Myth of Lord Boromrajathirat, the truly ancient version), Vientiane: The Literature Department, Ministry of Education, 1967.

   26. Jaruwan Thammawat,  p. 72-3, nd.

   27. In Eugenio's collection, folk epics have been called heroic narratives.  Eugenio cited E. A. Manuel from "A Survey of Philippine Folk Epics, " Asian Folklore Studies, XXII (1963), 3 that Manuel called "heroic narratives" "folk epics or ethnoepics," with specific common characteristics: a) narratives of sustained length, b) based on oral tradition, c) revolving around supernatural events or heroic deeds, d) in the form of verse, e) which is either chanted or sung, f) with a certain seriousness of purpose, embodying or validating the beliefs, customs, ideals, or life-values of the people.  Thus, I adopted the term "folk epics" for this collection.

    28.  Maha Sila Viravongs, Thao Hung Thao Cheuang Epic: Adaptation into Modern Prose (sic. Verse), adapted and annotated by Doungdeuane (Viravongs) Bounyavong and others, Vientiane: The National Library of Laos, 2000).

   29. Phra Ariyanuwat Khemajari, Phadaeng Nang Ai (King Phadaeng and Princess Aikham), Mahasarakham: Srinakharinwirot University, 1981.

   30. Koret,   pp. 129-131.

   31. Margaret Read MacDonald and Wajuppa Tossa, Folktales and Storytelling, Mahasarakham: Aphichat Kanphim, 1997, p. 16.

   32. Sommon Phunsawat, Tamla ya phuen muang (Folk Medicine), Vientiane: Long phim haeng rat (The Lao Government Printing Press), 1986 and 1990.

   33. Samlid Buasisawat, kotmai buhan soi sai kham (ancient law called soi sai kham), Vientiane: Long phim suksa (Ministry of Education Printing Press), 1992.  This version could be found in the Lao National Library.

   34. Jaruwan Thammawat, p. 36.  However, these volumes are not listed in the most recent bibliographies published by the Lao National Library 1975-1995.

   35. Maha Sila Viravongs, tamnan phrabang (The Legend of Phrabang Buddha Image), Vientiane: Ministry of Education, 1967.

   36. Buaphan Thammavong, prawatsat lao buhan (Ancient Lao History), Vientiane: Mahawitthayalaisangkhu (The National Teachers' College), 1990.  

   37. Sai-u-koed, Sikhotabong, 1989.  Listed without publisher.

   38. Duangkhai Luangphasi, Sikhottabong, Vientiane: Longphim haeng lat (The State Printing Press), 1990.

   39. Pho. Phuangsaba, Yaa son laan (Grandma Teaches Grandchildren), Vientiane: The State Printing Press), 2000.  

   40. Jaruwan Thammawat, p. 120.

   41. Brunvand, p. 63.  

   42. Phra Inta Kaweewong is an abbot of Wat Sa-ahd-sombun in Roi-et province in northeast Thailand.   He has been compiling many collections of Isan/Lao narratives.  He is also a poet specialized in all forms of Lao folk poetry.